In terms of the abnormality of the barrier and water functions in the stratum corneum and its related causes, such as ceramides and their metabolites, this book discusses the physiological and biochemical basis for atopic phenotypes. Biological effects of astaxanthine (AX) xanthophyll carotenoid to avoid UV-induced cutaneous inflammation, abnormal keratinization, pigmentation and wrinkling in a reactive oxygen-independent manner of depletion and post-irradiation therapy. The respective intracellular signalling mechanisms in human keratinocytes (HKs) and human melanocytes were determined by the analysis (HMs). The results strongly supported the hypothesis that unknown tumorigenic variables activate keratinocytes to continually produce TNF due to potential accumulated DNA damage caused by previous repeated UVB exposures. The study also showed that the upregulated activity of elastase derived from fibroblast skin plays a pivotal role in skin wrinkling and/or sagging due to impaired elastic fibre configuration and subsequent loss of elasticity in the skin. With regard to melanocyte activation mechanisms and therapeutic topical therapy, it is strongly suggested that the combined treatment of an endothelin signalling blocker and a tyrosinase inhibitor is a beneficial therapeutic inhibitor, based on the above findings of the melanocyte activation mechanism in SLs as well as the clinical efficacy obtained using an endothelin signalling blocker and a tyrosinase inhibitor.
Professor for Center for Bioscience Research & Education, Utsunomiya University, 350 Mine Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505, Japan and Visiting Professor for Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan.
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