Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii Schum Leaf Extract: Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimalarial Activity

Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii Schum Leaf Extract: Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimalarial Activity

Different parts of Piliostigma thonningii Scum (Caesalpinioideae) have been used medicinally. The
roots and twigs have been used locally in the treatment of dysentery, fever, respiratory ailments,
snake bites, hookworm and skin infections in Eastern Nigeria. The leaf extracts have been used for
various ethnomedicinal purposes including the treatment of malaria all over Eastern Nigeria. In this
study, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude ethanol and methanol extracts for in
vitro
antimalarial activity against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum clone (W2-Indo-China
isolates). The aqueous screening using reported methodologies for phytochemical screening and in
vitro
test methods, revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoids,
flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The crude leaf extracts obtained were tested for in
vitro antimalarial activity using chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum clone (W2 – Indochina
isolates). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were evaluated after 48-72 h contacts between the
extracts and the parasite culture. The 50% inhibitory concentration values for both the crude amide
ethanolic extract and the partially purified methanolic extract ranged between 6.20 – 15.06 µg/ml.
While that of chloroquine was 0.316 µg/ml. This study suggested that P. thonningii leaf extract
possess a significant level of antimalarial activity.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Andrew Kwaji
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Borno State, Nigeria.

Dr. P. U. Bassi
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria.

M. Aoill
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Borno State, Nigeria.

C. M. Nneji
Institute for Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, UCH, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


Professor G. Ademowo
Institute for Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, UCH, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

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