Retrospective Analysis of Malarial Parasitemia and Bacteremia in Febrile Episodes Seen at Tertiary Hospital at Nguru, Nigeria

Retrospective Analysis of Malarial Parasitemia and Bacteremia in Febrile Episodes Seen at Tertiary Hospital at Nguru, Nigeria

Background: Febrile episode remains the common clinical presentation responsible for hospital admission among children aged less than 5 years in sub-Saharan African. The overlapping of clinical signs and symptoms, with diverse aetiological agents implicated in febrile illness, tends to compound effective diagnosis and management approach in a low-resource healthcare setting.

Objective: We retrospectively analysed malaria parasitemia and bacteremia results of febrile patients seen at a tertiary hospital in Nguru, Yobe state, Nigeria.

Study Design: A retrospective study analysed malarial parasitemia and bacteremia of febrile patients aged less than 12 years.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the federal Medical center Nguru in the department of Medical Microbiology and Paediatric that spanned between January and December 2014.

Methodology: Thick and thin blood smear examination for asexual malarial parasite, blood culture technique for bacterial pathogens isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing were employed for the study.

Results: Malarial parasitemia was detected in 44(32.6%) cases, bacterial pathogens isolated in 51(37.8%) and co-infection prevalence of 16.3% respectively. Five different bacterial pathogens were isolated, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 34(66.9%), Salmonella spp 10(19.6%), Escherichia coli 4(7.8%), Coliforms 2(3.9%) and Streprotococcus pneumoniae 1(2.0%) respectively. The statistical difference was observed between clinical details and microbiological indices, malarial parasite (P<0.001) and bacterial pathogens (P<0.0001). High malarial parasitemia and bacteremia was observed within the age-group of 1-11 months and >60 months. The bacterial pathogens demonstrated high resistance pattern to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole.

Conclusion: These findings presented local epidemiological data of febrile episode that could optimized febrile illness diagnosis and management approach.

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