Antimicrobial Studies of the Transition Metal Complexes of the African Black Soap from Elaeis guineensis (Palm Kernel Oil) and Theobroma cacao (Cocoa)

Antimicrobial Studies of the Transition Metal Complexes of the African Black Soap from Elaeis guineensis (Palm Kernel Oil) and Theobroma cacao (Cocoa)

An indigenous organic soap produced by saponification is African black soap. The laboratory-controlled preparation was carried out using reactive palm kernel oil and cocoa pod ash filtrate. After its reaction with certain transition metal salts, which were Cu(CH3COO)2.H2O, Pb(CH3COO)2.3H2O and FeCl3, the elucidation of its capacity to act as a ligand was carried out. 3:1 was the metal:ligand ratio (M:L). These reactions were performed in an aqueous medium to yield the corresponding complexes [Pb(C11H23COO-K+)2(C11H23COO-)2].9H2O, [Cu(BL)4(C11H23COO-)2].4H2O and [Fe(BL)2(C11H23COO-)Cl2] with yields of 56, 48 and 41% respectively. Spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses were used to classify the prepared compounds. The moisture content was 26 percent (w/w), total fatty matter (TFM) was 44.75 percent (w/w), total fatty alkaline (TFA) was 0.22 percent (w/w), total alkaline (TA) was 11.78 percent (w/w) and pH was 10. Physicochemical tests of the black soap showed the moisture content was 26 percent (w/w), total fatty matter (TFM) was 44.75 percent (w/w) The solubility of the metal complexes calculated in different solvents at room temperature revealed that as polarity decreased, it increased. An octahedral structure for the Pb(II), a distorted octahedral structure for the Cu(II) and an octahedral Fe(III) complex are corroborated by Spectra studies, in which African black soap (C11H23COO-K+) acted either as a monodentate or bidentate ligand. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Aspergillus species and Rhizopus species) were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity of these compounds, revealing the complex [Cu(BL)4(C11H23COO-)2].4H2O was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Rhizopus species, whereas all.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Adebomi A. Ikotun
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Oladipupo O. Awosika
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Professor  Mary A. Oladipo
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

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