Plasmodium vivax Malaria

We report 11 cases of severe plasmodium malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, kidney failure , circulatory collapse, severe anemia, hemoglobinurea, abnormal bleeding, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and jaundice. Peripheral blood microscopy, parasite antigen–based assays, and parasite 18s rRNA gene–based polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of P. vivax and absence of P. falciparum. [1]

Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

In douroucouli , the night monkey, schizonts and mature trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are concentrated in myocardium, fat , and striated muscle where parasitized red cells line the veins and block some capillaries. Electronmicroscopy reveals gross distortion of host red cells with numerous ultramicroscopic abnormalities of the red cell surface. Ultrastructural lesions of the red cell wall are demonstrated in cells infected with Plasmodium coatneyi and, as we’ve shown, in A. trivirgatus infected with P. falciparum. In infections with these parasites deep vascular schizogony may be a prominent feature. The superficial alterations of the parasitized cells appear to be sites of attachment to venous endothelium and to other parasitized erythrocytes, thus explaining the paucity of circulating cells with maturing parasites in falciparum malaria. [2]

PLASMODIUM VIVAX RESISTANCE TO CHLOROQUINE?

Two soldiers continued weekly prophylaxis with 300 mg chloroquine base on their return to Australia from Papua New Guinea but weren’t protected against plasmodium malaria. Both had symptoms and parasitaemia although plasma concentrations of chloroquine were considerably above those considered adequate for suppression of vivax malaria. Parasitaemia didn’t clear after one among the patients was treated with 600 mg chloroquine base. The results suggest the emergence of strains of P vivax with a reduced susceptibility to chloroquine. [3]

Male-Specific Protein Disulphide Isomerase Function is Essential for Plasmodium Transmission and a Vulnerable Target for Intervention

Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is an important strategy in malaria eradication, and therefore the organic process of gamete fusion during fertilization may be a proven target for this approach. Lack of data of the mechanisms underlying fertilization are a hindrance within the development of transmission-blocking interventions. Here we describe a protein disulphide isomerase essential for malarial transmission (PDI-Trans/PBANKA_0820300) to the mosquito. We show that PDI-Trans activity is male-specific, surface-expressed, essential for fertilization/transmission, and exhibits disulphide isomerase activity which is up-regulated post-gamete activation. [4]

Performance of First Response® and CareStart™ Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum in a Tertiary Hospital in Ghana

Background: Malaria poses a serious public ill health in Sub-Saharan Africa . In Ghana, many people are potentially in danger of Plasmodium falciparum infections annually. the present study evaluated the performance of two Histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) rapid diagnostic tests (First Response® and CareStart™) using giemsa stained microscopy (microscopy) because the gold standard. This cross-sectional study which happened at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi from October 2014 to March, 2015 was done to watch the performance of RDTs that are used regularly in Ghana.

Methodology: a complete of 400 children (239 males, 161 females; age range 1-17 years) with fever or history implicational malaria were included within the study. First Response® and CareStart™ diagnostic accuracy results were compared thereupon of microscopy. The strength of agreements (kappa) between the microscopy and therefore the two RDTs were also calculated. [5]

Reference

[1] Kochar, D.K., Saxena, V., Singh, N., Kochar, S.K., Kumar, S.V. and Das, A., 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emerging infectious diseases, 11(1), (Web Link)

[2] Luse, S.A. and Miller, L.H., 1971. Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 20(5), (Web Link)

[3] Rieckmann, K.H., Davis, D.R. and Hutton, D.C., 1989. Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine?. The Lancet, 334(8673), (Web Link)

[4] Male-Specific Protein Disulphide Isomerase Function is Essential for Plasmodium Transmission and a Vulnerable Target for Intervention
Fiona Angrisano, Katarzyna A. Sala, Sofia Tapanelli, George K. Christophides & Andrew M. Blagborough
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Ameyaw, B., Mutocheluh, M., Owusu, M., Khalifah, A., Duneeh, R. and Narkwa, P. (2017) “Performance of First Response® and CareStart™ Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum in a Tertiary Hospital in Ghana”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 19(8), (Web Link)

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