News Release on HIV Transmission Research: September-2018

A new way to fight HIV transmission

Scientists at the University of Waterloo have developed a replacement tool to guard girls from HIV infection.

The tool, a canal implant, decreases the number of cells that the HIV virus will target in a very woman’s sex organ track. in contrast to standard ways of HIV hindrance, adore condoms or anti-HIV medication, the implant takes advantage of some people’s innate immunity to the virus. [1]

Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Detects HIV Transmission Risk in Serologically-Tested Blood Donor Units.

Introduction: transfusion is an important life-saving intervention within the care delivery. obligatory screening of donor units helps forestall transfusion-transmissible infections, reminiscent of Human immunological disorder Virus (HIV). Aim: The aim of this study was to use Nucleic Acid-Amplification Testing (NAAT) to screen for the presence of HIV-1 in blood-banked samples labeled as “safe for transfusion” per serologic testing algorithmic rule. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional diagnostic study was conducted in could 2016 on serologically tested donor blood units within the Koforidua Regional Hospital bank. 100 (100) donor samples were analyzed exploitation the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Qual take a look at for the detection of HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA. Results: Of the one hundred donor samples that tested seronegative for HIV-1 and a couple of exploitation the protein screening kit, four (4) samples (4%) were reactive by NAAT. Blood donors WHO came for the donation were solely males and the majority (90%) were between the ages of 17-27 years. [2]

Per Sex-Act Risk of HIV Transmission Under Antiretroviral Treatment: A Data-Driven Approach

Background. Before the completion of HPTN 052, PARTNER and Opposites Attract studies, information was lacking to directly estimate HIV transmission risk beneath effective cART. Rather, estimates were obtained by extrapolating a dose-response relationship between infective agent load and risk of HIV transmission, ascertained among untreated people, to treated people. Presently, information has accumulated from 9 clinical studies for an instantaneous validation of this extrapolation

Methods. mistreatment estimates of the per-sex-act risk of HIV transmission on effective cART obtained by extrapolation, sexual behavior information, and an easy mathematical model, we tend to calculable the number of seroconversions that ought to are ascertained in HIV-serodiscordant couples wherever the HIV-positive partner was on cART across the 9 studies. we tend to compare this with the number of seroconversions

actually ascertained. Next, we tend to directly calculable the danger of HIV transmission on effective cART, mistreatment Bayesian statistics to mix all accessible information [3]

Intimate partner violence and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) could be a risk issue for non-adherence to HIV treatment for girls, but the proof on the impact of IPV on the uptake of the hindrance of mother to kid transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade is inconclusive. we have a tendency to examined knowledge from 433 HIV positive pregnant girls in the national capital, Democratic Republic of Congo, listed between April 2013 and August 2014 and followed-up through six weeks postnatal. Participants were asked concerning their IPV experiences in a very face-to-face interview at enrollment. Measures of PMTCT cascade included: uptake of clinical appointments and services, infectious agent suppression, and adherence to antiretrovirals (ARV). close to half the sample (51%) had fully fledged some variety of IPV; thirty-fifths had fully fledged emotional abuse, twenty-ninth physical abuse, and one hundred and ninetieth statutory offense. [4]

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Partner Notification Rate among Antenatal Care Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

Aims: To assess data of HIV/AIDS transmission and confirm the extent of partner notification among HIV positive prenatal care attendees in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Study Design: A clinic primarily based on the cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and period of Study: Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, African nation between January and April 2014.

Methodology: a complete of four hundred girls attending prenatal care at the Federal Teaching Hospital were designated employing a systematic sampling technique. The shoppers were interviewed employing a pre-tested asker administered form. sensible data of HIV transmission was assessed by the proportion of shoppers World Health Organization properly answered five hundredths of the data queries. knowledge analysis was done exploitation SPSS applied mathematics code version twenty. Chi-square check of applied mathematics significance was utilized in the analysis and level of significance was firm by ap price of under zero.05. [5]

Reference

[1] New way to fight HIV transmission

Date: April 16, 2018, Source: University of Waterloo (web link)

[2] Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Detects HIV Transmission Risk in Serologically-Tested Blood Donor Units.

DADzIE I, MunIru S, ADu P, CUDJOE O. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Detects HIV Transmission Risk in Serologically-Tested Blood Donor Units. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research. 2018 Sep 1;12(9). (web link)

[3] Per Sex-Act Risk of HIV Transmission Under Antiretroviral Treatment: A Data-Driven Approach

SUPERVIE V, BREBAN R. Per Sex-Act Risk of HIV Transmission Under Antiretroviral Treatment: A Data-Driven Approach. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2018 Aug 28. (web link)

[4] Intimate partner violence and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Gichane MW, Moracco KE, Thirumurthy H, Okitolonda EW, Behets F, Yotebieng M. Intimate partner violence and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. PloS one. 2018;13(8):e0203471-. (web link)

[5] Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Partner Notification Rate among Antenatal Care Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

  1. C. Eze1*, B. I. Ituma1, and E. N. Ossai1

1Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria (web link)