A simple and rapid method for the permethylation of carbohydrates
As a results of a study of the permethylation of sugars in such couple aprotic solvents as methyl radical sulphoxide, the until now accepted role of the CH3SOCH−2 ion is questioned. The HO− and H− ions seem to be the effective basic agents in these methylation reactions. This conclusion recommended a replacement technique for the permethylation of sugars involving methyl radical halide, a solid base (NaOH, KOH, or tert-BuOH/NaOH), and methyl radical sulphoxide. wonderful yields (98 ±2%) of permethylation product were obtained in a very remarkably short (6–7 min) interval. The non-sugar peaks that seem in gas chromatograms of the product of Hakomori methylation were absent once the new chemical agent was used. 
Quantitative determination of carbohydrates with Dreywood’s anthrone reagent.
The qualitative specificity of Dreywood’s chemical agent (Indust. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed., 1946, 18, 499) for carbohydrates was confirmed. Quantitative estimation of carbohydrates exploitation the chemical agent in conjunction with Associate in Nursing Evelyn photo-electric tintometer is claimed to convey results varied inside ± a pair of per cent; of the mean. The chemical agent offers constant depth of color with sugar compounds before and when chemical reaction.-S. D. Morrison. 
GLYCAM06: A generalizable biomolecular force field. Carbohydrates
A new derivation of the GLYCAM06 physical phenomenon, that removes its previous specificity for carbohydrates, and its dependency on the AMBER physical phenomenon and parameters, is bestowed. All pertinent physical phenomenon terms are expressly such as and then no default or generic parameters square measure used. The new GLYCAM is not any longer restricted to any explicit category of biomolecules, however is extendable to any or all molecular categories within the spirit of a small‐molecule physical phenomenon. The torsion terms within the gift work were all derived from quantum mechanical knowledge from a set of lowest molecular fragments and connected tiny molecules. For carbohydrates, there’s currently one parameter set applicable to each α‐ and β‐anomers and to any or all saccharide ring sizes and conformations. we have a tendency to demonstrate that etymologizing dihedral parameters by fitting to QM knowledge for internal move energy curves for representative tiny molecules typically results in correct rotamer populations in molecular dynamics simulations, which this approach removes the requirement for section corrections within the dihedral terms. However, we have a tendency to note that there square measure cases wherever this approach is insufficient. reportable here square measure the fundamental elements of the new physical phenomenon additionally as associate degree illustration of its extension to carbohydrates. additionally to reproducing the gas‐phase properties of associate degree array of tiny check molecules, condensed‐phase simulations using GLYCAM06 square measure shown to breed rotamer populations for key tiny molecules and representative biopolymer building blocks in express water, additionally as crystalline lattice properties, like unit dimensions, and undulation frequencies. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2008 
Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates
Diminishing fuel reserves and growing issues regarding heating indicate that property sources of energy are required within the close to future. For fuels to be helpful within the transportation sector, they have to have specific physical properties that allow economical distribution, storage and combustion; these properties are presently consummated by non-renewable petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Ethanol, the sole renewable liquid fuel presently made in massive quantities, suffers from many limitations, together with low energy density, high volatility, and contamination by the absorption of water from the atmosphere. Here we have a tendency to gift a chemical change strategy for the assembly of two,5-dimethylfuran from levulose (a sugar obtained directly from biomass or by the isomerisation of glucose) to be used as a liquid transportation fuel. Compared to ethyl alcohol, 2,5-dimethylfuran includes a higher energy density (by forty per cent), a better boiling purpose (by 20 K), and isn’t soluble in water. This chemical change strategy creates a route for reworking well endowed renewable biomass resources1,2 into a liquid fuel appropriate for the transportation sector, and should diminish our reliance on crude oil. 
Impacts of Elevated CO2 on Growth, Carbohydrate Assimilation and Nutrient Uptake of Elaeis guineesis Jacq Seedlings
Aims: This study was conducted to characterize the expansion patterns of tenera feather palm seedlings performance (Deli AVROS) below elevated greenhouse gas, that’s expected to extend within the future because of global climate change.
Study Design: The palms were exposed to a few carbon enrichment treatments: (1) close greenhouse gas (400 ppm); (2) double close greenhouse gas (800 ppm), and (3) thrice close greenhouse gas (1200 ppm). irregular complete block style (RCBD) with 3 replications was used throughout the experiment exploitation store AVROS seedlings.
Place and length of Study: Department of Biology, college of Science Universiti Putra Asian country from March 2017 to Gregorian calendar month 2017.
Methodology: greenhouse emission enrichment treatments started once seedlings reached 3 months previous by exposing them to a few levels of greenhouse gas, i.e., close greenhouse gas (400 ppm), double close greenhouse gas (800 ppm) and thrice close greenhouse gas (1,200 ppm). Growth, saccharide and macronutrients properties were measured at the top of the treatment amount of three months.
Results: it absolutely was found that greenhouse gas had the best influence on the expansion over the 3 months’ amount of experiment. because the level of greenhouse gas exaggerated, from 400>800>1200 ppm, the plant height, variety of leafage per plant, basal diameter, leaf space per seed plant, root biomass, total dry matter, web assimilation rate (NAR) and relative rate of growth (RGR) was important exaggerated between the greenhouse gas levels. the improved plant growth below elevated greenhouse gas can be contributed by exaggerated in production of total non-structural saccharide (TNC) of the palm below elevated greenhouse gas. The exaggerated in TNC exposed to elevated greenhouse gas was supported by increase in plant product and starch content below these conditions. additional plant product was offered than starch indicate that no feedback inhibition was occurred and also the palm have enough sink strength to address elevated greenhouse gas. The macronutrients contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) additionally was found to be reduced below elevated greenhouse gas treatments, indicated that growth improvement below elevated have dilute the nutrient content within the palms.
Conclusion: last, the expansion of feather palm seedlings was increased with elevated greenhouse gas at double and triple concentration than the close. it absolutely was found that the rise can be because of increase in production of total non-structural saccharide. the improved growth additionally exaggerated the macronutrient demands below the elevated levels of greenhouse gas. This show in future the palm desires additional fertilizers with increased levels of elevated greenhouse gas. 
 Ciucanu, I. and Kerek, F., 1984. A simple and rapid method for the permethylation of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate research, 131(2), pp.209-217. (Web Link)
 Morris, D.L., 1948. Quantitative determination of carbohydrates with Dreywood’s anthrone reagent. Science (Washington), 107, pp.254-255. (Web Link)
 Kirschner, K.N., Yongye, A.B., Tschampel, S.M., González‐Outeiriño, J., Daniels, C.R., Foley, B.L. and Woods, R.J., 2008. GLYCAM06: a generalizable biomolecular force field. Carbohydrates. Journal of computational chemistry, 29(4), pp.622-655. (Web Link)
 Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates
Yuriy Román-Leshkov, Christopher J. Barrett, Zhen Y. Liu & James A. Dumesic
Nature volume 447, pages 982–985 (21 June 2007) (Web Link)
 Ibrahim, M., Nulit, R., Wahab, P. E., Najihah, T. S., Razak, A. and Zain, N. A. (2018) “Impacts of Elevated CO2 on Growth, Carbohydrate Assimilation and Nutrient Uptake of Elaeis guineesis Jacq Seedlings”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 27(4), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42001. (Web Link)