Latest News on Myopia: July – 2020

Latest News on Myopia: July – 2020

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MYOPIA
Many people have reduced unaided vision because of myopia, a spherical error of refraction. The biological theory of myopia views myopia as the result of genetically determined characteristics of eye tissues, whereas the use-abuse theory views myopia as the result of habitual use of the eye at a near focal length, near-work. [1]

Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia

This paper examines the familiar argument that takeover pressure can be damaging because it leads managers to sacrifice long-term interests in order to boost current profits. If stockholders are imperfectly informed, temporarily low earnings may cause the stock to become undervalued, increasing the likelihood of a takeover at an unfavorable price; hence the managerial concern with current bottom line. The magnitude of the problem depends on a variety of factors, including the attitudes and beliefs of shareholders, the extent to which corporate raiders have inside information, and the degree to which managers are concerned with retaining control of their firms. [2]

Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects.

This article explains how alcohol makes social responses more extreme, enhances important self-evaluations, and relieves anxiety and depression, effects that underlie both the social destructiveness of alcohol and the reinforcing effects that make it an addictive substance. The theories are based on alcohol’s impairment of perception and thought—the myopia it causes—rather than on the ability of alcohol’s pharmacology to directly cause specific reactions or on expectations associated with alcohol’s use. Three conclusions are offered: (a) Alcohol makes social behaviors more extreme by blocking a form of response conflict. (b) The same process can inflate self-evaluations. (c) Alcohol myopia, in combination with distracting activity, can reliably reduce anxiety and depression in all drinkers by making it difficult to allocate attention to the thoughts that provoke these states. These theories are discussed in terms of their significance for the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) [3]

Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure

Aims: To determine if there is causal association between myopia and intraocular pressure at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.

Study Design: A case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) between November, 2012 and May, 2013.

Methodology: Eighty consecutive patients of myopes (group A) and emmetropes (group B) were sampled in two groups. Group A was subgrouped into low myopia (−3.0D<Spherical Equivalent (SE)≤ −0.5D), moderate myopia (−3.0D≤ SE-< -6.0D) and high myopia (SE ≥ -6).[4]

 

Wavefront-guided Versus Standard Laser in situ Keratomileusis in Myopia Using a 213 nm Wavelength Solid-state Laser: Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations

Purpose: To assess the accuracy, efficacy, stability and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia and compare the pre- and post-operative changes in higher-order aberrations after wavefront-guided (WF) and standard (STD) LASIK done using the Pulzar Z1, a 213-nm wavelength solid-state laser, and determine their effects on visual acuity and refractive outcomes.

Methods: This a retrospective case series composed of 80 eyes (40 patients) that had LASIK in an out-patient refractive surgery center in Manila, Philippines. Outcome measured were pre and post-operative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), keratometry, root-mean-square (RMS) values, flap and ablation related complications. [5]

Reference

[1] Angle, J. and Wissmann, D., 1980. The epidemiology of myopia. American journal of epidemiology, 111(2), pp.220-228.

[2] Stein, J.C., 1988. Takeover threats and managerial myopia. Journal of political economy, 96(1), pp.61-80.

[3] Steele, C.M. and Josephs, R.A., 1990. Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American psychologist, 45(8), p.921.

[4] Chinawa, N.E., Adio, A.O. and Chukwuka, I.O., 2017. Is There a Causal Relationship between Myopia and Intraocular Pressure. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-7.

[5] Iguban, E.B., Agahan, A.L. and Evangelista, R.P., 2016. Wavefront-guided Versus Standard Laser in situ Keratomileusis in Myopia Using a 213 nm Wavelength Solid-state Laser: Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-11.

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