Determination of Entropy as a Sum of Heat Capacities

The physical meaning of phenomenological, thermodynamic entropy is reasoned and elaborated by generalizing Clausius definition with inclusion of generated heat, since it is irrelevant if entropy is changed due to reversible heat transfer or irreversible heat generation. Irreversible, caloric heat transfer is introduced as complementing reversible heat transfer. It is also reasoned and thus proven why entropy cannot be destroyed but is always generated (and thus over-all increased) locally and globally, at every space and time scales, without any exception. An attempt is made to explain the meaning of entropy in thermodynamics. A new concept of heat capacity is defined. For it, the temperature change is measured from 0 kelvin. It is supposed that the entropy of a substance is the sum of these heat capacities in the formation of the substance from 0 kelvin to the actual temperature. This conclusion agrees with experimental data. Entropy is an integral measure of (random) thermal energy redistribution (due to heat transfer and/or irreversible heat generation) within a material system structure in space, per absolute temperature level.

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