Internal waves are a type of saltwater movement that transports energy from the ocean’s upper layer to the deep layer, then transports the cooler deep-layer seawater together with nutrients to the warmer shallow layer, allowing organisms to survive and reproduce. The internal wave causes the isodensity surface to fluctuate, changing the magnitude and direction of sound, which has a significant influence on sonar and is favourable to submarine hiding beneath water; it also has a devastating effect on offshore infrastructure.

Author(s) Details

Chen-Yuan Chen
Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong 525000, China.

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