Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory
Objective : To estimate the attributable ACT hospital system costs of treating selected infant and childhood illnesses having known associations with early weaning from human milk.
Method : We identified relative risks of infant and childhood morbidity associated with exposure to artificial feeding in the early months of life vs breastfeeding from cohort studies cited by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1997 as establishing the protective effect of breastfeeding. Data for ACT breastfeeding prevalence is assessed from a 1997 prospective population‐based cohort study of 1,295 women. ACT Hospital Morbidity Data and DRG treatment costs were used to estimate the attributable fraction of costs of hospitalisation for gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness and otitis media, eczema, and necrotising enterocolitis.
Results : Although initiation rates were high (92%), less than one in 10 ACT infants are exclusively breastfed for the recommended six months, mainly due to supplementation or weaning on to formula within the first three months and the early introduction of solids by breastfeeding mothers. This study suggests the attributable hospitalisation costs of early weaning in the ACT are about $1 ‐2 million a year for the five illnesses.
Conclusions and implications : Early weaning from breast milk is associated with significant hospital costs for treatment of gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness and otitis media, eczema, and necrotising enterocolitis These costs are minimum estimates of the cost of early weaning as they exclude numerous other chronic or common illnesses and out‐of‐hospital health care costs. Higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding would reduce these costs. Interventions to protect and support breastfeeding are likely to be cost‐effective for the public health system. 
Aged care services for Indigenous people in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounds:analysing needs and implementing change
Objective: To ascertain and meet current and anticipated needs for residential care and other services by older Indigenous people in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and region.
Methods: With advice from a reference group, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from 98 older (45 years and over) Indigenous people in the ACT and region during 1999/2000. Indigenous and non‐Indigenous researchers worked closely throughout all phases of the research. We helped participants with immediate problems identified during the interviews and worked directly with the Government funding body to implement the findings.
Results: No one expressed a current need for residential services. In terms of future needs, 50% of respondents favoured an arrangement where an existing mainstream provider of aged care accommodated a cluster of Indigenous people in the same facility as non‐Indigenous people. Thirty‐two per cent preferred an Indigenous‐run organisation. Our study also revealed a broad range of health problems and needs. Assessment using the Resident Classification Scale showed that 70% required a low level of care and 4% needed a high level of care.
Conclusion: The research identified the needs and provided a health profile of older Indigenous people in the ACT and region. This then provided policymakers with evidence on which they acted to provide appropriate aged care services.
Implications: Collaboration between Indigenous and non‐Indigenous researchers can access high‐quality information, and partnership between researchers and policymakers can improve Indigenous services. 
A Geoid for the Australian Capital Territory
AUSGEOID93 is a national grid of geoid-ellipsoid separations (N values). When differences in N from AUSGEOID93 are subtracted from differences in ellipsoidal height from GPS surveys, the resulting differences in orthometric height frequently approach 3rd Order levelling accuracy. However, in areas of rapid changing terrain, the results may be less accurate. It was believed that this was due to the absence of terrain data in AUSGEOID93.
The ACT region was chosen to test this hypothesis and at the same time produce a grid of improved N values approximately 4 times denser than AUSGEOID93. 
Baseline Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Soil, Vegetation and Water in the Industrial District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria
Natural radioactivity in environmental samples (soil, vegetation and water) from the (Idu) industrial district of Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria was measured by means of gamma-ray spectrometer with NaI (Tl) detector to establish a baseline data for activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The highest activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were found in soil collected from location S2 (943.1 Bq/kg), in vegetation VC (82.3 Bq/kg) and in soil collected from location S3 (107.3 Bq/kg), respectively, where only the activity from S2 is higher than the world average of 420 Bq/kg and the highest activity concentrations of both 226Ra and 232Th from VC (82.3 Bq/kg) is above the world average of 50 Bq/kg (UNSCEAR, 2000). Results from the twelve field samples analysed also indicated that the activity concentration due to 40K in the soil samples ranked highest against the lowest value obtained for sediments in the water samples. 
Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria
This study investigated the role of entrepreneurial orientation in the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive and quantitative research design. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire and works on entrepreneurial orientation-Performance nexus. The data was analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that five entrepreneurial orientation dimensions as identified in the literature were not exhibited by SMEs in the study area. The entrepreneurial orientation dimensions exhibited by SMEs in Abuja in order of importance were: autonomy, proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking. The entrepreneurial dimension of competitive aggressiveness was not demonstrated by SMEs in Abuja. Innovativeness was the only entrepreneurial orientation dimension out of the five that exerted a positive and statistically significant relationship with the performance of SMEs. However, the other three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: proactiveness, risk-taking, and autonomy exerted a positive and insignificant relationship with the performance of SMEs. Therefore, the study, recommends that to add values to their firms, SMEs operators in Abuja need to be innovative in their entrepreneurial activities with emphasis on process and radical innovations. In addition, considering the enabling environment provided by the government for business, SMEs operators should strive and build capacities on the four entrepreneurial orientation dimensions demonstrated by them in this study. Furthermore, the government should organize training for SMEs operators in collaboration with development partners to ensure the adoption and effective implementation of innovativeness in FCT, Abuja. 
 Smith, J.P., Thompson, J.F. and Ellwood, D.A., 2002. Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 26(6), pp.543-551.
 Dance, P., Brown, R., Bammer, G. and Sibthorpe, B., 2004. Aged care services for indigenous people in the Australian Capital territory and surrounds: analysing needs and implementing change. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 28(6), pp.579-583.
 Freund, K.A., Steed, J. and Kearsley, A.H.W., 1997. A geoid for the Australian Capital Territory. Australian surveyor, 42(1), pp.25-32.
 Umar, A., Onimisi, M. and Jonah, S. (2012) “Baseline Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Soil, Vegetation and Water in the Industrial District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3), pp. 266-274. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2012/1467.
 U. Duru, I., O. Ehidiamhen, P. and N. J. Chijioke, A. (2018) “Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 6(1), pp. 1-21. doi: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/39748.