Latest Research on Soil Pollution: Dec – 2019

Latest Research on Soil Pollution: Dec – 2019

Latest Research on Soil Pollution: Dec – 2019

The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals

Microbial parameters appear very useful in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals, but no single microbial parameter are often used universally. Microbial activities like respiration, C and N mineralization, biological N2 fixation, and a few soil enzymes are often measured, as can the entire soil microbial biomass. Combining microbial activity and population measurements (e.g., biomass specific respiration) appears to supply more sensitive indications of soil pollution by heavy metals than either activity or population measurements alone. Parameters that have some sort of “internal control”, e.g., biomass as a percentage of soil organic matter, also are advantageous. By using such approaches it’d be possible to work out whether the natural ecosystem is being altered by pollutants without recource to expensive and long-running field experiments. [1]

Limitations of soil enzymes as indicators of soil pollution

Soil enzyme activities are considered to be sensitive to pollution and are proposed as indicators for measuring the degree of soil degradation. during this work we found that in three galician soils exposed to varied degrees of pollution by tanning effluent, hydrocarbons or landfill effluent, the changes within the activities of individual enzyme didn’t allow precise quantification of soil degradation. Thus, the enzymatic activities in polluted soils with reference to that on top of things soils was between 37 and 260% for phosphomonoesterase, between 16 and 250% for β-glucosidase, between 28 and 194% for urease and between 24 and 251% for dehydrogenase. The degree of degradation was, however, clearly shown altogether cases by the ratio Nc/Nk, where Nk is Kjeldahl nitrogen and Nc may be a function of microbial biomass C and nitrogen mineralization capacity combined with three enzyme activities (phosphomonoesterase, β-glucosidase and urease). [2]

Urban soil pollution in Damascus, Syria: concentrations and patterns of heavy metals in the soils of the Damascus Ghouta

The objective of the study was to assess the extent and severity of heavy metal contamination of arable soils of the Damascus Ghouta, a neighborhood with intensive agricultural production. We examined this degree and spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in 51 soil profiles and in 22 topsoil samples within the Damascus Ghouta. The soils were digested with nitrohydrochloric acid for heavy metal analysis. Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations within the topsoils exhibited anthropogenic increased values. the main sources for the heavy metal contamination in Damascus city are most possibly emissions from vehicles. These emissions transported by air and sewage water along side household and industrial sewage effluents are considered to be liable for the increased heavy metal concentrations found within the soils of the central Barada area. [3]

Assessment of soil heavy metals for eco-environment and human health in a rapidly urbanization area of the upper Yangtze Basin

Soil pollution with heavy metals (HMs) has been attracting more and more interests, however, assessment of eco-environmental and human risks particularly during a rapidly urbanization area (the upper Yangtze) remains limited. Multiple modern indices were firstly performed for complete risk assessment of eco-environment and human health supported a high-spatial-resolution sampling. Averages of HMs were far below grade II intensity of the Chinese Environmental Quality standards for soils, whereas Cd, As and Hg considerably exceeded the local background values. EF suggested overall moderate enrichments of Cd and Se, leading to soils uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with them. [4]

Management of Increasing Soil Pollution in the Ecosystem

The present paper may be a mini review of the increasing soil pollution within the environment and therefore the possible handy options available, to curb its rate. Soil being a non-renewable resource, must be shielded from all kinds of pollutants. The health of all life forms is related to the health of soil. Any degradation within the quality of soil can significantly produce many undesirable changes within the environment. Adoption of suitable strategies to guard our motherland from contamination is must for all folks to save lots of ourselves and continuation of natural cycles within the ecosystem. [5]

Reference

[1] Brookes, P.C., 1995. The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals. Biology and Fertility of soils, 19(4), (Web Link)

[2] Trasar-Cepeda, C., Leiros, M.C., Seoane, S. and Gil-Sotres, F., 2000. Limitations of soil enzymes as indicators of soil pollution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(13), (Web Link)

[3] Möller, A., Müller, H.W., Abdullah, A., Abdelgawad, G. and Utermann, J., 2005. Urban soil pollution in Damascus, Syria: concentrations and patterns of heavy metals in the soils of the Damascus Ghouta. Geoderma, 124(1-2), (Web Link)

[4] Assessment of soil heavy metals for eco-environment and human health in a rapidly urbanization area of the upper Yangtze Basin
Zhongmin Jia, Siyue Li & Li Wang
Scientific Reports volume 8, (Web Link)

[5] Sarkar, D., ., S., Rakesh, S., Ganguly, S. and Rakshit, A. (2017) “Management of Increasing Soil Pollution in the Ecosystem”, Advances in Research, 12(2), (Web Link)

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