Haemato- Biochemical and Electrolyte Changes in Naturally Occurring Theileria Associated Bovine Anaemia (Taba)

The goal of this study was to see how haematology and serum electrolytes changed in cows that were naturally infected with theileriosis. In the study, 102 crossbred cows aged 2 to 5 years were screened and analysed. Twelve of them were discovered to be naturally afflicted with theileria. A control group of twelve animals of the same age and appearance were kept. When compared to non-anemic (healthy) cattle, haematological parameters of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were considerably (p 0.05) lower in anaemic cattle. In this investigation, electrolyte balance comparisons revealed a significant drop in sodium and ionised calcium concentrations in anaemic mice as compared to the control group at the p0.05 level. Differences in blood potassium and total calcium levels, on the other hand, were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When biochemical values were examined, anaemic animals had a substantial increase (p 0.05) in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, but a significant decrease (p 0.05) in total protein and albumin concentrations. These findings revealed a bleak picture of circulating blood in animals suffering from theileria-related anaemia.

Author (S) Details

Yogeshpriya Somu

Department of Veterinary Medicine; Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu, Thanjavur – 614 625, India.

Saravanan Mani

Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu, Thanjavur – 614 625, India.

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Hepatitis B Positivity can Impair Some Haematological Parameters

Hepatitis B virus is a deadly viral infection that kills slowly if not treated and could be the underlying cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Some Hepatitis B positive patients may present with symptoms while some others maybe asymptomatic hence, the need to assess their haematological indices. Twenty-five Hepatitis B positive patients (male and female) attending Madonna University Teaching Hospital (MUTH) Elele Nigeria were used as subjects while another twenty five Hepatitis B negative apparently healthy individuals (males and females) served as controls. The positive patients were further divided into symptomatic and non-symptomatic groups. Verbal consent was obtained prior to sample collection. The samples were analyzed using standard manual methods. The research was approved by Madonna University Ethical Committee (MUEC). There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in PCV and Hb and while ESR had significant increase. Most of the Hepatitis B positive patients (17) were asymptomatic while others (8) showed symptoms. When the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were compared, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in all the parameters. Hepatitis B positive patients could be at risk of developing anaemia. Management and treatment could be better handled before the onset of symptoms associated with Hepatitis B infection. Early diagnosis and inclusion of Hepatitis B screening in routine test is recommended.

Author(s) Details

 A. O. Ajugwo
Department of Haematology, Madonna University, Elele, Nigeria.

T. A. Erhabor
Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria (MLSCN), Abuja, Nigeria.

View Book :- http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/212

Socio-demographic and Environmental Factors Influencing Asymptomatic Malaria and Anaemia Incidence among School Children in Fako Division, South West Cameroon: Detailed Study

Aim: This work was aimed to assess the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors on the incidence of asymptomatic malaria and anaemia among pupils in Fako Division, southwest Cameroon.  Experimental Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey.  Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Fako Division, southwest Cameroon Bolifamba, Dibanda and Mutengene from February to March, 2013. Methodology: A total of 316 pupils aged 4–15 years were studied. Data on socio-demographic and environmental factors was obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected. Malaria parasite incidence and density were determined from Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears respectively. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were determined using a haemoglobinometer. Results: The overall incidence of asymptomatic malaria was 43.4% (CI=38-48.9). Malaria incidence was significantly highest (χ2=7,P=0.03) in pupils of 6-10 years age group (49.0%, CI=42.1-59.9) when compared with their counterparts. Although not significant, malaria parasite incidence was higher in males, pupils with fever, highest in pupils of Bolifamba and poor social status than their respective counterparts. Geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was significantly highest (Kruskal Wallis test, *χ2=6.4, P=0.04) in Dibandathan other sites. Anaemia incidence was higher among inhabitants of Dibanda (56.7%) than other sites. Anaemia incidence was statistically higher (χ2=5.6, P=0.02) in malaria positive pupils, highest in Dibanda (χ2=27.244, P<0.001) and the middle class when compared with their respective counterparts. Mean HB was significantly higher in malaria negative (t=1-8, P=0.02), highest in the poor class (χ2=13.4, P=0.001) and Mutengene (F=21.2, P=0.0001) when compared with their respective counterparts.  Conclusion: Sensitization on effective malaria control strategies needs to be emphasized so that a reduction in malaria burden can be achieved.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga,
Department of Biological Sciences, Higher Teachers Training College, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon and Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Biaka University Institute Buea, P.O.Box 77, Buea, SWR, Cameroon.

Prof. Helen K. Kimbi
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, N.W. Region, Cameroon.

Ass. Prof. Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele
Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O.Box 63, Buea, SWR, Cameroon.

View Book :- http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/196

Research on Post-transfusion Haematocrit Equilibration: Timing Post-transfusion Haematocrit Check in Neonates at the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

Anaemia is a common morbidity in the NICU and often requires transfusion of packed red blood cells. Haematocrit equilibration following red cell transfusion occurs over time ultimately resulting in a stable packed cell volume (PCV). Knowledge of this equilibration process is pertinent in the accurate timing of post-transfusion (PT) PCV. We conducted a prospective study to determine an appropriate timing for PT PCV estimation on 47 stable anaemic babies at the Neonatal Unit of National Hospital, Abuja. Values of PCV were determined before transfusion and at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours post-transfusion. Forty of the recruited neonates and young infants were analyzed. Their gestational age range was    26 to 40 weeks. 1-hour PT PCV (48.5% ± 5.5%) was similar to the 6-hour PT PCV (47.8% ± 5.6%) = 0.516, but both were significantly different from the 12-hour (46.8% ± 5.9%), 24-hour (45.9 ± 5.8%), and 48-hour (45.4% ± 6.2%) PT PCVs. The 12-hour PT PCV was similar to the 24-hour and 48-hour PT PCVs ( = 0.237 and 0.063, resp.). We concluded that, in stable non-haemorrhaging and non-haemolysing young infants, the estimated timing of haematocrit equilibration and, consequently, post-transfusion PCV is 12 hours after red blood cell transfusion.

Author (s) Details

Dr. L. I. Audu
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

A. T. Otuneye Neonatal Unit
National Hospital Abuja, Plot 132, National Hospital Road, Central Business District, P.M.B. 425, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. A. B. Mairami
Neonatal Unit, National Hospital Abuja, Plot 132, National Hospital Road, Central Business District, P.M.B. 425, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. L. J. Mshelia
Neonatal Unit, National Hospital Abuja, Plot 132, National Hospital Road, Central Business District, P.M.B. 425, Abuja, Nigeria

V. E. Nwatah
Neonatal Unit, National Hospital Abuja, Plot 132, National Hospital Road, Central Business District, P.M.B. 425, Abuja, Nigeria.

View Book :-  http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/167

Intestinal Helminthiasis and Its Association with Hemoglobin Level among Primary School Children in Sokoto Metropolis

Intestinal helminthes are associated with the reduction in the level of haemoglobin. This abnormal reduction in haemoglobin results in anemia. The study determined the prevalence of parasitic infection and its relationship with haemoglobin level among primary school children in Sokoto metropolis. Stool and blood samples were collected from 224 children from some selected primary schools in Sokoto Metropolis. The stool specimens were examined for parasites by both macroscopic and microscopic methods (saline and wet iodine mount, and formol-ether concentration) while haemoglobin concentration in the blood sample was estimated using hemocue hemoglobin method. A prevalence rate of 8.5% was seen among the children sampled. Hookworm had the highest prevalence of 3.1%, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1.8%). Ascaris lumbricoides had a prevalence of 1.3%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.4%). 0.9% showed mixed infection with H. nana and Hookworm. Children within the age group of 4-6years had the highest prevalence rate (60%). Male children had a higher prevalence (4.5%) than female (4.0%). The mean haemoglobin concentration in the healthy subject was 11.82 g/dl, while in infected subjects it was 11.03 g/dl, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that there was a low prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among children in Sokoto metropolis. However, the haemoglobin concentrations of infected children were significantly affected by parasitic infection. Low haemoglobin concentration in children can lead to behavioural disturbances as a result of impaired neurological development and reduced scholastic performance. Based on these findings, efforts must be made to create better sanitary and toilet facilities in schools at all times to avoid indiscriminate defecation that could lead to the transmission of helminthic infections.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/72/867/669-1