Study on Degradation of Leaf Litter of Five Tree Species by Perionyx excavatus with Relation to Their Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Content

The ecological acceptability of various leaf litter forms in promoting biological diversity and soil micronutrient status must be studied before selecting plant species for afforestration procedures. The current study looked at the colonisation of an epigeic earthworm, Perionyx excavatus, in the decomposing leaf litter of five locally important tree species, including Cashew, Shal, Mango, Acacia, and Eucalyptus, over a 90-day period. In laboratory microcosms, the primary nutrient and anti-nutrient chemical parameters of the leaf litters were compared, and the rates of degradation of the selected nutrient and anti-nutrient parameters were investigated. P. excavatus demonstrated the most colonisation for Cashew, followed by Shal, with both tree species having considerably higher rates of degradation of the investigated nutritional parameters and reduced anti-nutrient content. Eucalyptus, which had the highest polyphenol and tannin content and significantly lower rates of degradation of all the investigated nutritional parameters and thus their use in microcosms with P. excavatus, had the least colonisation by P. excavatus. The results showed that decreased tannin and polyphenol content in Cashew and Shal leaf litters can be linked to the palatability of these leaf litters, resulting in maximum colonisation by P. excavatus. As a result, Cashew and Shal are appropriate tree species for afforestation strategies that improve nutrient recycling and soil conservation.

Author (S) Details

Sayantani Pattanayak

Department of Zoology, Raja N. L. Khan Women’s College, Midnapore, India.

Rupa Dasgupta

Department of Zoology, Raja N. L. Khan Women’s College, Midnapore, India.

Partha Pratim Chakravorty

Department of Zoology, Raja N. L. Khan Women’s College, Midnapore, India.

Susanta Kumar Chakraborty

Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India.

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The Serendipitous Practice of Neoclassical Economics-Modern Neoclassical Technologies

This book discusses the theory and practise of Multidimensional Osmosis as a cure for a number of social diseases. Through in-depth econometric studies of « Gospel » concepts, I discover that the greatest scientific model that the human mind has ever conceived has thus been applied for the first time in its smallest specifics and far beyond by the Church of JESUS CHRIST of latter-day Saints from its own writings only, without any reference to the works of the founders of the Classical or Neoclassical schools. This experience has taught me many things:

Despite what economists have always claimed, the classical model can be applied in the real world.

The two schools are right, and they combine to form a single, unique school. The one observes the other. The classical paradigm is inherently empirical, and it provides scientific evidence to the Church of JESUS CHRIST of Latter-day Saints’ truthfulness. As a result, there are two potential interpreters or witnesses to the Truth: science and divine revelation.

Any model that differs from the classical model is a scientific apostasy (irrational) that leads to abnormal and suboptimal outcomes, which is the root of all social diseases.

Optimality can be achieved not only mathematically but also in the real world, and since there is only one optimality condition, there is only one multidimensional school, only one Multidimensional Church, that is, a school or Church whose decisions and behaviours are completely revealed, allowing for equilibrium (isotonic state or the real state of all things) in the sense of Pareto.

The present unidimensional school’s mixture of tares and Reality is and has always been the secret to the world’s rout, and is ultimately of diabolical nature, the enemy of all Justice; an equilibrium in the sense of Pareto is a state of the economy in which the welfare of one economic agent cannot be strengthened without degrading the welfare of another economic agent.

The progress of one school (Church) determines the wealth of the other. Because of this, every true scientist is a saint, and every saint is a scientist, these organisations act as social disease care.

The lessons to be learned from this study are practically endless, and they represent a landmark moment for the universe, science, and religions, because no one will be able to rely on pointless scientific and religious debates to escape submitting to Reality in the future, and the facts will become increasingly plentiful, giving God complete authority to judge the world harshly because no one can tell God what to do.

On the one side, we cannot enjoy the advantages of the true Church or science (electricity, automobiles, planes, boats, medicine, etc.) while maintaining that there is no God. A true Church or science that uses various methods to prove the presence of God and speaks in one voice is a wake-up call to the earth’s giant darkness or the end in the ostrich game of a decadent planet.

In caution the authorities against the severe implications that will arise from implementing the PRSP in its current form, in addition to case studies of unidimensional creations (European imperialism, slavery, public policies) and/or an in-depth study of the PRSP. I also present a method and a device for designing and implementing a National Multidimensional Creation Program (PNCM), which is Africa’s only real weapon against poverty.

Is it the devil’s school or the secular school

If divine truths are expressed by tunnel-shaped locks, the devil’s school takes a transverse approach to them rather than manipulating them longitudinally or entirely, resulting in even relative truths where absolute truths are needed. For example, an entrepreneur who is only concerned with the profitability of his investment will adjust his production in response to effective demand, violating two welfare economics theorems: 1) “the equilibrium on a set of perfectly competitive markets is efficient in the sense of Pareto,” and 2) “the equilibrium on a set of perfectly competitive markets is efficient in the sense of Pareto.” If all economic agents have convex preferences, there is always a set of prices such that any efficient allocation in the sense of Pareto is a market equilibrium for adequate initial endowments, which is powerful in revealing the nature of God’s invisible hand and his infinite multidimensional creation, as well as the importance of human virtues such as honesty, charity, gratitude, and multidimensionality. In this case, the entrepreneur’s justice is no more than that of a lion pursuing its prey merely because it is hungry. Since China has a population of over a billion four hundred million people to feed, it will claim democracy first, moral principles second; or because the African continent has 60% of the world’s soil and subsoil wealth, Europe will be unable to manage its predatory instincts; or because Africans are powerful and docile, they are an enormous advantage for American farm profits. How can students know that Keynesianism or Communism is false, etc., without the Holy Spirit and revelation?

School of God or Normative School

The school is as sacred as the Church since knowledge is sacred. The school and the Church were not different at first. “Now everlasting life is that they know you, the one true God, and whom you sent Jesus Christ,” John 17:3 says. However, the dignity of justice is inextricably connected to information. To separate faith or God from knowledge or school is to murder life.

Consider what King Solomon says in Proverb 8 about intelligence. Isn’t it true that wisdom screams? Isn’t it true that knowledge speaks up? It is at the top of the ridges near the lane, at the crossroads, that it establishes itself…. Listen up, because I have a lot to tell, and my mouth is about to open to teach you the truth. Since my lips hate lies and my mouth proclaims the reality. Any word that comes out of my mouth is right. They are all clear to the wise and upright to those who have discovered knowledge; there is nothing wrong or devious about them.

My directions are better than silver, and science is better than the most expensive gold; wisdom is better than pearls. I, wisdom, have discernment as my abode and possess the science of reflection; the fear of the Lord is hatred of evil; arrogance and pride, the evil way, the perverse mouth, that’s what I despise; advice and success are mine; I am the intelligence and the strength; kings reign and princes decree what is right; through me govern.

This verse, as well as the rest of the Bible, lays out what should be taught in schools and universities, and there is nothing more important than knowledge or wisdom.

“Every moving creature will live wherever the river flows, and there will be a large number of fish; for where this water comes, the waters will become clean, and all will live wherever the torrent reaches,” Ezekiel 47:9. What kind of water is Ezekiel referring to? whoever drinks of this water will thirst again; but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst, and the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water that will spring up into eternal life; Jn 4: 6-15.

However, the apostle James already shared more about the learning process in verse 2. “My brethren, consider the numerous trials to which you may be subjected as a source of utter joy, recognising that the test of your faith produces patience, but patience must do its work completely in order for you to be perfect and fulfilled, without lacking something,” he said.

It is difficult to receive the Holy Spirit without faith. The Holy Spirit will now teach you all, according to John 14:26.

Our model’s key finding is that a greater willingness to absorb “Gospel” and “Love” leads to a greater use of “Priesthood authority” and an increase in the level of its technology, which in turn leads to a greater use of “Priesthood authority” and yield per successful priesthood holder to decide a high level of power in the priesthood in the long run. The development of “Gospel” and “Love” will have to continue forever, making the millennium unlikely to arrive. The millennium is made possible by decreasing returns on authority, keys, and control in the priesthood as a feature of technological production, whose claims are set by preordination or predestination before the world’s foundation.

The presence of the West, the F.M.I., and the World Bank in Africa resembles a squaring of the circle. On the one hand, colonialism seems to have turned the entire continent into a wreck by diverting it, like a river, from its natural cultural bed, where all public efforts will fail, and on the other hand, the recovery of ancient Egypt appears to be at odds with the objective of poverty reduction. Poverty reduction strategies, not just in terms of increased government spending or crowding out social investments in favour of more productive investments, raise deficits and drive national economies away from full employment almost forever.

In reality, all studies show that structural adjustment policies (PAS, PASR, FASR, or PRSP) fail to restore the main equilibrium (isotonic state or real state of all things) in question, exacerbate poverty on the one hand, and slow economic growth in Africa due to the shock of liberalism and global economic interdependencies on the other.

The book demonstrates that only the Multidimensional School, the Multidimensional Church, and even the Neoclassical School can restore the basic conditions for optimal creation by multidimensional creation. The PNCM is a promising new model focused on micro-project selection and replication as well as multidimensional development projects.

In any case, the IMF had made its official position clear by announcing the seven criteria that will be used to validate the PRSPs and distinguish them from the 1980s’ Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP). Participatory strategy and national ownership of the PRSP; PRGFs focused on PRSPs; fiscal target flexibility; pro-poor and pro-creation budgets; simplified conditionality; and PRS impact analyses on poverty are some of them. If one of these conditions, especially the first three, is not met, the PRSP would simply be a P.A.S whose shortcomings are still fresh in the minds of the public. Only endogenous processes resulting from beneficiary recognition can cause lasting quantitative and qualitative improvements, as opposed to the fundamental requirement that the PRSP come from the country’s driving forces. The lack of a precise cultural and strategic context, as well as the absence of the short term, which should be the top priority considering its possible effect on the poorest communities, is the major weakness of unidimensional creations. The origins of African nations’ resources are therefore authentic and endogenous tactics, with foreign assistance serving as a complement. The multidimensional creation approach and device presented here allow for a complete revision and fair repair of the unidimensional creations of colonialism, slavery, and public policies in order to return the African continent to its cultural bed for its endogenous and authentic growth.

CREATION Of MORE THAN ONE DIMENSION

In summary, a National Multidimensional Creation Program is a structured and complex collection of processes that work together to achieve society’s economic, social, and environmental goals through engagement, study, dialogue, capacity building, creation, and investment. The PNCM starts with a diagnostic study that evaluates the multidimensional development issue, establishes the condition, and establishes priorities. The Program is formulated after agreement on the PNCM’s vision and priority goals has been achieved. The PNCM aims to establish effective management structures in the regions of various countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the goal of developing multidimensional creation microprojects (appropriate, financially autonomous, profitable from a multidimensional creation standpoint, multidimensional and reproducible) through an exchange of experiences and mobilisation of local resources.

Project partners who follow the approach are usually the ones who fund such a project. The UNDP, as a supporter of the multidimensional development strategy, is a main collaborator in all of the countries where the Program operates. If the diagnostic analysis favours the PNCM and a significant number of development partners sign a framework agreement between the government and the UN system’s coordination, the UNDP-government cooperation agreement (the CPPAP) should be based on the Program and its implementation.

This has never happened before in the world. The most complete framework for realising the liberal model organised by an animation structure appears to be multidimensional formation. Reproduction of multidimensional creation-type micro-projects achieves in record time what the populations themselves would have entailed in PNCM in the long run, assuming they had the requisite knowledge, capacity, and understanding. There are no stakes higher than what multidimensional development seeks to achieve: sustainable multidimensional creation would address poverty in the most concrete and long-term way possible. This approach comes from the people themselves, and it seeks to help them grow their own ingenuity so that they can become self-sufficient.

True, multidimensional formation cannot solve all of a country’s development problems in all directions, but it can be used in conjunction with other ongoing processes at the local, regional, national, and international levels, especially in the medium term. This is the case for the development of economic and social infrastructure, for example. Then other logics, decision-making procedures, funding and execution modalities, and structures come into play.

But what kind of connections can we make between PRSP and multidimensional creation?

PNCM AND PRSP

Since multidimensional development is such a valuable tool in the fight against poverty and achieving the SDGs in general, it’s vital that the two strategies work together to create effective bridges. The benefits of multidimensional development are universally accepted and have no flaws. It’s a short- to medium-term initiative that has immediate, meaningful, and long-term poverty reduction impacts. As a result, the government must first validate and implement multidimensional formation. Then, a seminar should be held to create a proper articulation between multidimensional development and the PRSP. Following this process, an institutional structure for multidimensional development will be created. In any case, one of the strategies must deepen to include the other, and the validation seminar will decide the best institutional structure for implementing the two strategies, which are meant to complement and enrich each other. Some African countries have been LICUS countries since 2004, with the most visible manifestation being the launch of the Emergency Poverty Reduction Program (PURP). It is past time to review this programme and view it as a new paradigm for accepting multidimensional development.

Author(s) Details

Kcodgoh L. Edgeweblime
Department of Economics, Michael Archangel Institute of Technology – American Institute of Africa, Immeuble Lavandier, 329, Av. de la Chance, Togo.

View Book:- https://cls.bookpi.org/index.php/TSPNEMNT/article/view/1