Investigation of Risk Factors Associated with the Frequency of Antibodies against Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in Cattle in Southern Mozambique

Babesiosis in cattle is a disease caused by Babesia spp., a protozoan spread by ticks of the Ixodidae family, and is a major economic concern in the tropics. It is spread by ticks of the species Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus everts everts, and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in Mozambique, and is primarily caused by B. bigemina and B. bovis. The disease is characterised by high rates of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical climates, and it is widespread in southern Mozambique, where beef cattle imported from neighbouring countries make up the majority of livestock. Gender, age, and geographic origin were investigated as risk factors for serological prevalence and molecular diagnostic of B. bigemina and B. bovis in beef cattle in Maputo, Gaza, and Inhambane, southern Mozambique, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 809 and 240 blood samples from cattle were obtained at random and examined by i-ELISA and PCR at the same time. By i-ELISA, the overall prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis was 71.8 percent (n = 581) and 76.6 percent (n = 620), respectively, and by PCR, 11.3 percent (n = 27) and 37.1 percent (n = 89). According to the age and geographic origin of the samples, there was a significant difference in the two illnesses. The findings of this study provide significant information on the epidemiology of B. bigemina and B. bovis infection in beef cattle in the examined region, which can be used by domestic livestock management to plan future disease control actions.

Author (S) Details

António A. M. Tembue

Centro de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Etnobotânica (CIDE), Rua da Igreja casa Zero, Vila da Namaacha, Maputo, Mozambique.

Cleber O. Soares

Embrapa Gado de Corte, Área de Sanidade Animal, BR 262 Km 4, Caixa Postal 154, Campo Grande, MS 79002-970, Brazil.

Adivaldo H. Fonseca

Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Instituto de Veteri-nária, Universidade Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RAAVS-V2/article/view/4090

 

Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer in Saudi Arabia

Problem identification: Prostate cancer has become more common around the world in recent years as understanding and tools for early detection of cancer have improved. Prostate cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the Middle East, and it is the sixth highest cause of death among men. The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of genetics and environmental variables in the development and progression of prostate cancer in Middle Eastern countries, with a particular focus on the prevalence and mortality of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia. The study will also look into potential risk factors for the development of prostate cancer in Migrants.

Literature search: An extensive literature search was conducted to locate papers and research on the prevalence of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia, as well as possible reasons for its rising prevalence over time. The literature search also includes studies on the known and suspected risk factors that contribute to the development of prostate cancer.

Conclusion: The findings of the literature study and analysis in this paper revealed that Arab men’s genetics and individual anatomy play a role in the development of prostate cancer. For environmental reasons, it was discovered that Arab men’s changing lifestyles, as well as their increasing openness to Western influence, contributed to the high occurrence of prostate cancer. It was also discovered that as the level of medical practises in Saudi Arabia improves, more cases of prostate cancer are predicted to be recognised, as residents would have more access to early diagnosis of the disease.

Author (S) Details

Abdulghani A. Naeem
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

Saud A. Abdulsamad
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

Xi Jin
Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

Gang He
Sichuan Antibiotics Industrial Institute, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610081, China.

Jiachen Zhang
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

Qiang Wei
Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

Youqiang Ke
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom and Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NFMMR-V14/article/view/3385

A Recent Study on the Global Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-level Observation till the End of 2020

A new study looked at epidemiological data from 17 nations during the first 90 days of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in Wuhan, China. However, in order to take preventative steps, it is necessary to grasp the current world scenario. The goal of this research is to look at the global epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic from 212 nations through 2020. We used data from worldometers.info until December 31, 2020 to conduct this population-level observational analysis. Case rates, active cases, recovery rates, severe cases, death, and case fatality were among the epidemiological parameters examined. Despite a global recovery rate of 70.78%, mortality and case fatality rates are 0.02 percent and 2.18 percent, respectively. Andorra (1041%) has a high prevalence of instances, while Martinique (9769%), France (9012%), and Belgium (9009%) have a high incidence of active cases. Despite the large number of patients in Guinea-Bissau (50 percent), Antiqua and Barbuda (16.67 percent), and Saudi Arabia (13.81 percent), the recovery rate is approximately 90%. Both severe cases (24.21% ) and case fatality rates (29.06%) are high in Yemen; nevertheless, the recovery rate is somewhat over the national average of 66.41%. The recovery rates in Macao, Marshal Island, New Caledonia, and Singapore are all 100%. Worldwide, the recovery rate is high, and the death rate is low. In Yemen, however, the condition is extremely severe. For the international scientific community, these findings allow constant surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Author (S) Details

Vishal Vennu
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, 10219 Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.


View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMS-V13/article/view/2725

An Experience in a Single Hospital in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Epidemiology of Metastatic Lesions and Aggressive Benign Lesions Affecting the Spine

The goal of this study is to determine the occurrence of metastatic lesions in the spine, as well as to diagnose and stage them.

Materials and Procedures: This study covered patients with metastatic lesions in the spine, either single or double locations, that could be treated surgically. Between July 2014 and July 2016, 67 cases were reviewed at the Hospital Santa Marcelina – Itaquera’s orthopaedics outpatient clinic. Sex, age, tumour site, number of lesions, neurological condition, tumour type, and the occurrence of fractures were the variables studied.

The study enlisted the participation of 34 males and 33 women. The lumbar spine was the most severely affected, with L2 being the most severely affected, followed by L1 and L3. The primary tumour that revealed secondary implants in the column was breast cancer, followed by prostate cancer. The average age of the participants was 53 years old. The vertebral bodies of 45 individuals were fractured. We discovered abnormalities in 18 individuals and just 01 A Frankel while examining neurological changes. Conclusion: All patients treated for primary tumours who have axial pain or have cracked vertebrae should be thoroughly examined, including imaging of the entire spine, because the spine is affected by 40-50 percent of metastatic distant lesions.

Author (S) Details

Luiz Cláudio Lacerda Rodrigues
Santa Marcelina School of Medicine, Brazil.

Fernanda Andrea Minutti Navaro
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital Santa Marcelina, Brazil.

Rodrigo Yuiti Nakao
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital Santa Marcelina, Brazil.

Nathalia Adelina Neves Justino Pereira
Santa Marcelina School of Medicine, Brazil.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMS-V12/article/view/2701

Global Development on Causes, Epidemiology, Aetiology, and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: An Advanced Study

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, and it is a major health concern for men. Every year, an estimated 1.3 million new cases are diagnosed, and these cases result in the deaths of nearly 360,000 men, accounting for about 3.8 percent of all male cancer-related deaths in 2018. The global incidence and mortality of prostate cancer are linked to men’s age, with the average age of diagnosis being 66 years old. Prostate cancer is frequently asymptomatic or has few symptoms in the early stages of the disease, and there is little to no need for therapy at this time. Prostate cancer symptoms are similar to those of prostatic enlargement in the early stages. However, as prostate cancer progresses, more painful symptoms may emerge. The key marker used to detect prostate cancer is elevated levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). A biopsy of the prostate gland can be used to confirm the diagnosis. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the causes, epidemiology, aetiology, and risk factors of prostate cancer around the world, since we believe this is an important approach to keep up to speed on this growing health danger to men.

Author (S) Details

Bandar T. Alenezi
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

Mohammed H. Alsubhi
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

Xi Jin
Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

Gang He
Sichuan Antibiotics Industrial Institute, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610081, China.

Qiang Wei
Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

Youqiang Ke
Department of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 3GA, United Kingdom.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMS-V17/article/view/2615

COVID-19 Threat to Major Global Urban Centers and Crowded Rural Areas

The planet is being put to the ultimate test by a new and deadly enemy: the COVID-19 epidemic. As COVID-19 spreads over the globe, the world faces major social, political, and economic ramifications. This article examines COVID-19’s threat to major worldwide urban centres and crowded rural areas after an introduction and a brief epidemiological synopsis. COVID-19’s global influence is unparalleled, particularly in large global cities, for a variety of reasons, including their status as international hotspot locations. Financial centres, heavily populated locations, and higher percentages of low-income individuals and families all draw entrepreneurs from around the world.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Jean-d’Amour K. Twibanire
Canam Bioresearch Inc. Winnipeg, MB. R3T 0P4, Canada

Nawal K. Paul
The American University of Integrated Sciences, Cole Bay, Sint Maarten.


View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMS-V11/article/view/2513

Let’s Get Acquainted: Neuroleptic Cardiomyopathy

The monograph covers a wide range of topics related to neuroleptic cardiomyopathy, which is induced by antipsychotic medications’ cardiotoxic adverse effects.

For the first time, the disease’s epidemiology, clinic, pathomorphology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria are considered, and its nosological independence is justified. Myocardial hibernation in this pathology, as well as morphological changes in the heart in the comorbid course of various cardiomyopathies, are described.

The original author’s method of organometry of the heart and the algorithm of morphometric study of the myocardium were used to conduct the morphological research. The final examination of the results was done using a variety of statistical methodologies.

With numerous tables and drawings, the book is well-illustrated. More than 700 sources are referenced in the bibliography. The book is aimed towards researchers and practitioners working in the fields of general treatment, cardiology, and psychiatry, as well as experts who use antipsychotic medicines in their practise, medical educators, and students.

Author(s) Details

Volkov Vladimir Petrovich
Tver Regional Clinical Hospital, Russia.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/LGANC/article/view/2440

Influences of Gravity Constraints on the Epidemiological and Clinical Impact of Cervicarthrosis

Background: Cervicarthrosis affects more than half of people over the age of 40, making it a public health issue. The WHO designated the decade 2001-2010 as the “decade of the bones and joints.”

Objective: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profile of Congolese patients suffering from cervical arthrosis, as well as to study the evolution of cervical lordosis modification in order to improve physical treatment.

Methods: From 2011 to 2016, this case study was carried out at Kinshasa University clinics. 35 patients, both male and female, with cervical arthrosis were included in the study. The various angulations of the cervical lordosis were measured using appropriate software. The average height of the cervical spine measured with a caliper was 14 cm. The load exerted by the head on the cervical spine was calculated as a function of lordosis and vertebral height.

The results showed that 34.3 percent of the 35 patients were men and 65.7 percent were women. The age ranged from 30 to 80 years, with the highest incidence of cervicarthrosis occurring between the ages of 61 and 65. (20 percent ). The clinic was dominated by cervical pain (80% ) and irradiated pain (37% ). Other symptoms (such as blurred vision, headaches, and dizziness) were poorly represented. In terms of radiographic signs, cervical lordosis was eliminated or reduced in 91% of cases, followed by inter-somatic pinching (68%), ductal stenosis (62%), and osteophytosis (20%). Osteoarthritic myelopathy, on the other hand, is extremely uncommon (2 percent ). Variation in head load (in kg) on each cervical spine vertebra from C1 to C7 and from 0 to 45° depending on vertebra level and degree of cervical lordosis. The force increases in an arithmetic progression from C1 to C7 and from 45° to 0°.

Conclusion: This chapter has just highlighted the significance of the cervical lordosis spine in the diagnosis of cervical arthrosis, as well as the role of cervical lordosis in the variation of head load on each vertebra. Cervical arthritis is a serious degenerative disease that affects the neck.

Author (s) Details

K.G. Meya

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. B. Nsitwayizatadi
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

B. K. H. Nkakudulu
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

B. Miangindula
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. Mabanza
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

M. Nkoy
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

W. Okito
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

D. V. Sali
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Articular Osteo Unit, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

J. M. Mbuyi Muamba
Department of Internal Medicine, Service of Rheumatology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Congo.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMS-V2/article/view/1354

Prevalence of Esophageal Cancer in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Epidemiology and Problems of Complex of Treatment and Care

In this chapter, the concerns of esophageal cancer prevalence and the distribution of esophageal cancer mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are discussed. Statistical approaches, econometrics, geographical and time series analysis are used to examine esophageal cancer mortality rates. A research of the characteristics of the trends in esophageal cancer death rates in six EU countries and Ukraine is being conducted. The concerns of esophageal cancer prevalence and the geographic distribution of mortality rates from this disease are examined using the NUTS 2 areas in six Central and Eastern European nations as examples (Austria, Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary). The geographic distribution of esophageal cancer mortality rates is investigated. It enables us to identify more and less epidemiologically afflicted places, as well as conduct more extensive investigations on the relationship between esophageal cancer death rates and numerous causes. It is emphasised that various factors, such as the environment, socio-demographic characteristics of the population, culture and nature of nutrition, general health status of the population, availability of resources, and level of healthcare in the region, should be taken into account while developing treatment and care complexes and prevention programmes for prevalence.

Author(s) Details

Nadiya Dubrovina
School of Economics and Management in Public Administration in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Valery Boyko
State Institution, V.T. Zaicev Institute of General and Urgency Surgery NAMS of Ukraine, Ukraine and Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine.

Russell Gerrard
Business School (formerly Cass), City, University of London, UK.

Sergiy Savvi
State Institution, V.T. Zaicev Institute of General and Urgency Surgery NAMS of Ukraine, Ukraine.

Petro Zamiatin
State Institution, V.T. Zaicev Institute of General and Urgency Surgery NAMS of Ukraine, Ukraine and Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine.

Denis Zamiatin
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine.

Ivica Gulášová
Trnava University in Trnava, Slovakia.

Yurii Tovkach
Bukovian State Medical University, Ukraine.

Nataliia Yemelyanenko
Bukovian State Medical University, Ukraine.

Bohdana Banul
Bukovian State Medical University, Ukraine.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMR-V7/article/view/1059

Prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis in the Infectious Diseases Department of CHU Yalgado, Burkina Faso

In Burkina Faso, pneumococcal meningitis is still a public health problem. The aim of our research was to find out how common pneumococcal meningitis is at CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo’s infectious diseases department.

Patients and Procedures: It was a retrospective and descriptive analysis of patients hospitalised for pneumococcal meningitis in the department of infectious diseases at CHU YO Burkina Faso between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2019.

Results: 393 cases were collected over the course of 20 years, representing a proportional morbidity of 7%. The average age was 26,8 years [19 days -90 years] and the sex ratio M / F was 1.6. The bulk of the patients (91%) came from the city of Ouagadougou’s suburbs. Housewives, fishermen, and students were the most affected, accounting for 23%, 10%, and 9%, respectively. The dry season corresponded to the annual peaks of meningitis cases, which occurred between January and April. In 30.31 percent of cases, evolution was fatal.Pneumococcal meningitis is still a common occurrence at CHU-YO, with a high mortality rate. As a result, there is a need to encourage pneumococcal vaccination and improve the technological platform for effective case management.

Author (s) Details

Savadogo Mamoudou
Department of Infectious Diseases, CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso.

Nikiéma Pélagie
Neurology Department, CHU YO, Burkina Faso.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RTCMS-V10/article/view/710