Does Mechanical Damage on Soybean Induces the Production of Flavonoids?

Plants respond to grazing by producing chemical defense compounds such as protease inhibitors and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, making them less palatable for feeding and negatively affecting the physiology of insects. The purpose of this study was to assess the phytochemical response of soybean cultivars Glycine max resistant (IAC-17, IAC-24) and susceptible (IAC-P1) to insects after mechanical damage. These cultivars were mechanically injured, and after 24 HPLC was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in plant samples for several hours. The flavonoids daidzein, quercetin, and rutin were measured, with daidzin having the highest concentration. soybean cultivars after mechanical damage. Rutin was biosynthesized by IAC-24. The cultivars IACPL1, IAC-17, and IAC-24 did not show a flavonoid response to mechanical damage. Flavonoids are not produced by mechanical damage in soybean cultivars.

Author(s) Details

Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Rafael Almeida Barros
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Yaremis Beatriz Meriño-Cabrera
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Enzymology, Protein and Peptide Biochemistry, BIOAGRO/INCT-IPP, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

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Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids Extracted from Seeds of Pongamia pinnata Linn against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is defined as the resistant to penicillinase-stable penicillin’s, thus the acronym MRSA is still under use even though methicillin is no longer the agent of choice for treatment. The use of vancomycin for MRSA remains as the treatment of choice but concerns with rising resistance to glycol peptides call for the restrictive use of these drugs. The resistance mechanism and the genes that mediate resistance have presumably evolved in organism that produce antibiotics such that the antibiotic produced is not effective against the producing organism.

Aims: To assess the antibacterial property of seed crude extracts of Pongamia pinnata Linn and isolated flavonoids component from crude extract against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from clinical isolates.

Study Design: Observational study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Allied health sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Department of Microbiology in Sri Devaraj Urs Academy Of Higher Education and  Research, Tamaka, Kolar, between February 2014 and march 2015.

Methodology: Confirmed clinical isolates for MRSA were collected from Microbiology department to test the efficacy of crude extracts of seeds from Pongamia pinnata L. Methanolic crude extract has been preferably used for isolation of flavonoid content using Dimethyl Sulfoxide [DMSO] and methanol as ideal solvents during extraction process by column chromatography technique. Agar well diffusion method was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of crude seed extracts of Pongamia pinnata and isolated flavonoids by using quercitin as positive control for flavonoids. Vancomycin a glycopeptide powder used as gold standard for comparing bactericidal activity of quercitin, flavonoids and crude extracts of P. pinnata on MRSA.

Results: The highest antibacterial activity (75-89%) was observed in crude extract of Pongamia pinnata in comparison to vancomycin considered as cent percent. Extracted flavonoids showed activity (66-92%) with respect to crude extract and (50-84%) with vancomycin and the activity (71-92%) with respect to quercitin when tested with concentration ranging from 25-400 µg/ml.

Conclusion: This study showed that seed extracts of Pongamia pinnata L and its phytochemical compound flavonoids showed potential antibacterial activity against MRSA using quercitin and vancomycin. Flavonoids occupy the first grade antimicrobials in combating methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infections. These infections which are prominent in ICU units and HICU units can be drastically controlled without any side effects.

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