Study on Cloning, Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor of Indian Cattle (Bos indicus)

The cDNA coding for Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from LPS activated macrophages was amplified using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was then cloned into the pCNDA vector and sequenced. The amplified bovine GM-CSF cDNA was 755 bp length without the secretory signal peptide sequence. The ORF coded for 143 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16200 Da and was 99 percent identical to Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis, respectively. The phylogenetic study found that the GM-CSF sequences of swine and horse are the most distinct from those of buffalo, sheep, goat, and deer.

Author (S) Details

Ramya Kalaivanan

Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal-02, India. and Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Hebbal, India.

P. Sankar

Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal-02, India.

Subodh Kishore

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Hebbal, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RAAVS-V2/article/view/4078

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chickpea Employing ISSR Markers

To detect genetic variations, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are commonly utilised. ISSR markers were used to determine genetic diversity in 13 chickpea accessions, both cultivated and wild. The pentanucleotide repeat primer UBC-879 generated the best amplification patterns of all the anchored ISSR primers tested. In total, 150 bands were amplified in the 100-2000 bps molecular weight range, yielding an average of 21.4 bands per primer and 1.64 bands per primer per genotype. Amplification is least with the repeats (GA)8C, (AG)8YT, (GA)8YC, (AG)8C, (GTT)6, and (GT)8YC.

Author (S) Details

Neha Gupta
School of Studies in Biotechnology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Sameer Suresh Bhagyawant
School of Studies in Biotechnology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, Madhya Pradesh, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/CRAS-V13/article/view/3819

 

New Tool for Phylogenetic Analysis of Helicobacter pylori: An Advanced Study

The goal of this study was to find canonical insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers in the Helicobacter pylori genome and develop an INDEL-typing approach for strain classification. A local database of nucleotide sequences of 69 H. pylori strains was established for comparative examination of the genomes of H. pylori published in the GenBank database. A pairwise analysis of more than 1500 open reading frames (ORF) in the genomes of local database strains was done to find all INDEL markers with a fixed size of 6-20 bp. Ten loci with INDEL markers were discovered. 21 strains with known geographical origin from the most prevalent populations of hpEurope, hspWAfrica, and hspEAsia were examined in silico with the five most variable loci. A total of fifteen genotypes with a high diversity index (DI=0.95) were discovered. The minimum spanning tree (MST) method was utilised for cluster analysis, which revealed a clear distribution of clusters based on the geographical origin of the strains examined. In vitro INDEL-typing was done on 21 regional strains from the Astrakhan region. It was discovered that the vast majority of them are from the hpEuropean population. Despite the fact that the primary target of research is completely different genes, the results show that the suggested INDEL-typing approach almost exactly reflects the geographical distribution of H. pylori strains established by the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. To determine the geographical origin of H. pylori strains in Russia, more research is needed.

Author (S) Details

Vladimir Mihajlovich Sorokin
Rostov-on-Don Research Institute for Plague Control, Rostov-on-Don 344002, Russia.

Ruslan Vjacheslavovich Pisanov
Rostov-on-Don Research Institute for Plague Control, Rostov-on-Don 344002, Russia.

Aleksej Sergeevich Vodop’janov
Rostov-on-Don Research Institute for Plague Control, Rostov-on-Don 344002, Russia.

Elena Vadimovna Golubkina
Astrakhan State Medical University, Astrakhan 414000, Russia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RPMB-V7/article/view/2577

Reporting a Case of Bone Tuberculosis on Child

One of the type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects, above all, the spine, long bones and joints is bone tuberculosis (TB). The authors report a case involving a 12-year-old child with a pain and deformity complaint that had lasted for two years in the lower thoracic zone. In addition to the positivity of the molecular test based on the polymerase chain reaction, clinical, epidemiological and laboratory features associated with photos of obvious damage to the T9-T10 and T11-T12 vertebrae acquired by thoracic spine radiography and nuclear magnetic resonance, tuberculous spondylitis was diagnosed and specific therapy was initiated. After thirty days, the vertebral biopsy culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Measures that assist with patient prognosis are the early identification of illness and referral to a specialist facility for rapid diagnostic investigation. Pediatricians should be vigilant when they experience chronic instances of back pain and arthralgia in endemic areas.

Author(s) Details

Fabiana Cristina Fulco Santos
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

André Luiz Alves do Nascimento
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Laís Ariane de Siqueira Lira
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Juliana Figueirêdo da Costa Lima
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Rosana de Albuquerque Montenegro
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Lilian Maria Lapa Montenegro
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Haiana Charifker Schindler
Laboratório de Imunoepidemilogia, Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/CDHR-V5/issue/view/7

Brucellosis of Testis and Epididymis: An Update of the Literature

Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which has the ability to afflict a number of organs and tissues.  Brucellosis  epididymoorchitis  (BEO),  a  complication  of  human  brucellosis,  can  emanate  in complications. In brucellosis non-endemic areas, some clinicians may be unfamiliar with the disease entity which may lead to delay in the diagnosis.

Aim: To review the literature on BEO, in order to document its presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome following treatment as well as update the literature related to the disease. 

Methods: Various internet data bases were usedto obtain literature on BEO.

Results  /  Literature  Review: BEO (epididymitis  plus  or  minus  orchitis)  is  a  complication  of  an infection  caused  by  brucella  species  which  can  be  transmitted  via  contact  through  the  respiratory tract, skin, or conjunctiva, and through the gastrointestinal tract pursuant to ingestion of unpasteurized milk/milk products or raw infected meat. BEO does in endemic areas affect 2% to 20% of patients who have been afflicted by brucellosis but the disease can also be encountered sporadically globally in non-endemic areas. BEO could at times be bilateral. The manifestation of BEO is non-specific and it could be mistaken for non-specific epididymo-orchitis or epididymitis or testicular tumour or abscess. Ultrasound  scan  and  MRI  scan  findings  are  not  specific  to  BEO.  Diagnosis  of  BEO  may  be established by (a) history of contact, (b) cultures from blood/epididymal aspirations, (c) various types of laboratory studies including: (I) Culture, (II) PCR, and (III) serology. Laboratory test criteria for the diagnosis  of  Brucellosis  is  divided  into  (I)  those  for  presumptive  diagnosis  and  (II)  those  for confirmatory diagnosis: BEO can be effectively treated by means of combination chemotherapy for about six weeks but at times orchidectomy or drainage of testicular collection  may be necessitated for persistence of symptoms or suspicion of a tumour / testicular abscess. Relapses of brucellosis can occur hence careful follow-up of patients is required.

Conclusions: BEO can occur anywhere globally. A high index of suspicion is thus  required  from clinicians in order to establish early diagnosis of the disease. Most cases of BEO can be effectively treated with combination chemotherapy for about 6 weeks. Clinicians should be aware that brucellosis epididymo-orchitis, brucellosis  epididymitis  and  epididymo-orchitis  exist  and  this  condition  could  be unilateral or bilateral, though more commonly encountered in brucellosis endemic areas because of global travel the disease entity may be encountered sporadically globally.

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