Civic Competences Aspect in the Educational Process of Pupils from Socio-economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

Every one of us will experience an emergency at some point in our lives, whether it’s a fire, an accident, a traffic collision, or a natural disaster, and it’s critical that we know how to recognise them and respond appropriately. The major goal of the study is to measure the level of protection and safety awareness among primary school students in socioeconomically marginalised areas, ranging from first to third grade. The text describes the level of protection and safety awareness among Czech primary school students in the first to third grades who live in socioeconomically marginalised areas. Children’s and students’ education in areas of pollution prevention is becoming a hot topic. The problem is to alert and urge teachers to continue with topics that develop not only knowledge but also perceptions of the outside world and awareness of hazards and dangers that could damage a child’s or pupil’s development.

Author (S) Details

Lukas Starek
Department of Special Education, Univerzita Jana Amose Komenskeho Praha S.R.O., Rohacova 63 Prague 3, 130 00, Czech Republic.

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Breast Lipomodelling Outcome Following Conservative Breast Cancer Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery in a District Hospital

Lipomodelling has recently become more popular for correcting flaws and asymmetry after oncologic breast cancer treatment [1]. The current evidence on the efficacy of breast reconstruction using lipomodelling following breast cancer treatment is insufficient, and there are no substantial safety issues [2].

For both safety and efficacy, we verified our outcome results against the NICE guidelines. All lipomodelling cases performed in Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust between 04/2011 and 04/2013 were analysed retrospectively.

The trial involved 36 patients, with an average volume of fat injected of 113.91mls each session. The Cytori approach had the lowest rate of problems at 11%, compared to 44% and 45% for Coleman and body jet techniques, respectively.

The number of sessions for each patient, the length of hospital stay, and the amount of fat collected and injected in each patient all fulfilled the NICE guidelines criteria.

We didn’t meet the guidelines in the following areas: volume change; no definite tool was used other than clinical assessment; 80 percent of patients had very good and good aesthetic outcomes, compared to NICE’s 87 percent; and aesthetic outcome was absent in 8% of patients, compared to NICE’s 2.7 percent. In terms of safety, we met NICE standards in terms of local recurrence rates of 1%, local infection rates of 1%, pneumothorax, and fat embolism (0 percent ). However, we had a higher rate of liponecrosis (13 percent vs. 3%), as well as liponecrotic cysts (8.33 percent vs. 7%), using the Body jet approach.

Conclusion: Lipomodelling is a safe operation that can be performed at District general hospitals with comparable results after breast cancer surgery.

Author (S) Details

M. Metry
Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.

Breast Surgery Department Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust, UK.


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Study on How to Established National Occupational Health and Safety at Institute in Saudi Arabia

For people interested in promoting workplace health and safety, the field of occupational health and safety offers a wide range of job options. Occupational health and safety workers are in charge of ensuring a safe working environment in general. In the public sector, health and safety personnel are largely responsible for enforcing health and safety laws, whereas in the private sector, they are responsible for risk management, employee productivity, and liability reduction. In comparison to the major industrialised countries, occupational health and safety is a relatively new medical field in our Arab region. We must keep up with globalisation with these services, given the great industrial expansion here.
Author (S) Details

M. Almasoud
Occupational Medicine Specialist, Saudi Arabia.

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Determining the Efficacy and Safety of Teneligliptin and Metformin Versus Glimepiride and Metformin in Patients of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Uncontrolled with Monotherapy

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases, with both short- and long-term effects.

Material and Methods: The study included 60 patients, divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Teneligliptin 10 mg once a day and metformin 500 mg twice a day after meals were administered to Group 1 participants for 12 weeks. Glimepiride 1 mg once a day and metformin 500 mg twice a day after meals were administered to Group 2 patients for 12 weeks. Following the signed consent, the patient’s medical history, clinical examination, and biochemical tests such as FBG, PPBG, HbA1c, and lipid profile were performed. FBG and PPBG were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. HbA1c and lipid profiles were measured at the start and end of the trial.

The change in FBG was greater in group 1 than in group 2. When comparing the drop in PPBG in patients in groups 1 and 2 there was a highly significant difference in group 1. HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, HDL, and LDL levels all changed more in group 1 than in group 2. Conclusion: When compared to Glimepiride and metformin, teneligliptin and metformin resulted in a larger improvement in glycaemic and lipid profiles. Teneligliptin is therefore more effective than glimepiride.

Author (S) Details

Nitika Hans
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

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Comparative Study of Various Herbal Cosmetics: A Survey

The study’s goal was to compare and rate several herbal cosmetic brands in order to determine their popularity.

A survey-based questionnaire was utilised as the strategy. Results: According to the above study on herbal products performed in Kanpur, we discovered that Himalaya was the most popular brand when compared to other brands such as Patanjali, Joves, and other comparable brands.

Conclusion: In the market, there is no scarcity of demand for herbal items. Consumers’ concerns about the health risks and negative effects of chemical items have prompted them to switch to natural products. Himalaya products are highly regarded by their customers.

Author (s) Details

Ms. Megha Tiwari
Department of Pharmacy, Naraina Vidyapeeth Group of Institution, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Dr. Vishal Dubey
Department of Pharmacy, Naraina Vidyapeeth Group of Institution, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Akanksha Lahiri
Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Determining the Validation of Homegrown Stethoscope Simulator for Cardiopulmonary Training

Background: Health-care professionals’ knowledge contributes significantly to public safety. Simulation-based curriculum proponents argue that this mode of instruction is especially important. Auscultation using a stethoscope is a must-have instrument for the best possible care of cardiopulmonary patients. However, due to technical and ethical issues, obtaining adequate training in cardiopulmonary auscultation is difficult. The purpose of this study is to validate a low-cost and high-fidelity domestic stethoscope simulator for cardiopulmonary auscultation built by the author. Materials and Procedures: The hardware is a single PowerPoint presentation slide with links to cardiopulmonary sounds’ audio tracts, and the software is a single PowerPoint presentation slide with links to cardiopulmonary sounds’ audio tracts. The inventor confirmed the stethoscope simulator, and a panel of specialists was requested to assess its utility as a training tool, as well as its relevance to practise, physical qualities, realism of experience, capacity to accomplish tasks, realism of content, and realism of auscultation sounds. A panel of specialists evaluated the veracity of our homegrown stethoscope simulator. The participants were given an overview of the simulator and how it works, as well as the opportunity to physically examine the stethoscope simulator, learn how to use it, and auscultate all of its cardiopulmonary sounds. Each member of the panel was given a survey and asked to rate their comments on a five-point Likert scale: strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), and highly agree (5).  The qualities and attributes of this stethoscope simulator were agreed upon by experts in cardiology, pulmonary medicine, and respiratory care, and the observed average of the “global assessment” of the stethoscope simulator was acceptable. The manufacturing of a single simulator of this type cost around $100 USD. Conclusion: This homemade stethoscope simulator is a valuable equipment that can be implemented into bedside training and clinical experience laboratories to help undergraduate students comprehend and teach cardiopulmonary auscultation, according to primary evidence.

Author (S) Details

Tarig Eltoum Yagoub Fadelelmoula

Department of Respiratory Care, Almaarefa Colleges for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Approaches in the Development of the Potentially Pandemic LAIV Candidates

Influenza causes a major burden of acute respiratory disease each year. In addition, influenza pandemics occur on a regular basis. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. Currently, there are three types of influenza vaccines on the market: killed (inactivated), live attenuated (LAIV), and recombinant influenza vaccines. LAIV has sparked renewed interest in recent years, owing to WHO’s recognition of its benefits in the event of a pandemic. Classic reassortment of wild type influenza virus with cold–adapted master donor virus (MDV) in embryonated chicken eggs (Ultravac, Russia) and reverse–genetics technique (FluMist, USA) are two alternative approaches to generate LAIV candidates currently available. Avian influenza viruses continue to pose a serious pandemic risk. A variety of killed and live pandemic vaccines have been produced around the world in response to this threat. The aim of this chapter is to compile information from the growth, preclinical, and clinical testing of potentially pandemic LAIVs based on the cold–adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone obtained through a routine reassortment procedure. The LAIV candidates mentioned in this chapter are reassortants of wild–type (WT) viruses with MDV genomic compositions of 6:2 and 7:1. (6 MDV genes: 2 WT genes or 7 MDV genes : 1 WT gene, respectively). Despite variations in the genome formula, LAIV candidates of the H5, H7, and H2 subtypes developed temperature sensitivity, cold–adaptation, and attenuation in various animal models. They were found to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adult volunteers in clinical trials. According to the data, 7:1 reassortants carrying the only HA gene of a potentially pandemic virus as well as the remaining seven MDV genes could be potential candidates for the pandemic LAIV.

Author (s) Details

Irina Kiseleva
Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg, Russia and Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia and Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza, St Petersburg, Russia.

Natalie Larionova
Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Emphasizing the Safety, Health and Hazards Related to Using of Sprayed Concrete in Underground Mining Works

Sprayed concrete is a conventional construction material, but it reflects a highly advanced process at the same time. The development of sprayed concrete requires material science and developments in technology for spraying equipment. The performance and characteristics of sprayed concrete depend, in particular, on the state of its application, the equipment, the experience and the competence of the sprayed concrete team. This paper presents several aspects of a sprayed concrete operation that, due to the machinery, pressure value and the rebound projection, could have several hazards. In addition, proper ventilation in the field of application requires the use of sprayed concrete in underground mining works. Particular attention must be paid to the use of chemical admixtures and supplementary products in the constituent materials and, ultimately, in the sprayed concrete composition. Using this technique to mobilise the strength that forms in concentrated rocks around underground work to the limit, contributes to lower loads acting on permanent support and thus results in a more economic and realistic support system. The specificity of the support created from mortar or spraying concrete is that the rocks themselves are involved in achieving the bearing strength. Thus, from the object of the support, the rocks are a means of support themselves, literally rocks are self-supporting. The latter has a decisive role in promoting underground work in the newly developed framework of sprayed concrete-rock. With a resistance and impermeability superior to standard concrete, the mixture poured on the surface of rocks adheres very well and strengthens in a short time. At pressures of less than 0.6 to 0.8 MPa, the sprayed concrete is impervious to water penetration and can be used as a temporary and permanent support. Sprayed concrete is an artificial conglomerate obtained in some quantities by deciding the homogeneous mixture of aggregates, binder, and water. In smaller quantities, the sprayed concrete composition and a number of substances are also found in other powdered materials which change certain physical-mechanical characteristics in the desired sense. Due to both technical and technological variables, as well as the human factor, various hazards can be related from the spraying process. As far as underground workers who are directly involved in applying sprayed concrete are concerned, they must wear protective equipment at all times and maintain proper ventilation in the region of application, as spraying produces dust, mist and other contaminants that can contaminate the air. At the same time, there is a chance of protruding reinforcement fibres on the contour of underground work in sprayed concrete and can pose real dangers as they may harm the workers. A easy solution is to initially add a thin layer of unreinforced sprayed concrete to prevent this possible danger (hazard). Security specifications and operating instructions issued by the manufacturer of the equipment and the supplier of the materials must be given special attention. In particular, admixtures and admixtures for water reduction, but also complementary products, are commonly considered to be harmful to humans and the environment. Silicate-based accelerators have a high alkali content and need personal protection against irritation of the skin and eyes; there is a chance of alkali silicate reaction and water soluble portions leakage. Aluminate (alkaline)-based accelerators are caustic and require personal protection against skin and irritation. Since they are less risky and have a safer working environment, Alkalifree accelerators are favoured. The methods of spraying used have various effects on the working environment underground. Therefore, the use of the process of wet-mix spraying has a positive impact on the air quality of the working face and no air pollution has been found, if additions or alkaline-free accelerators are added in sprayed concrete, the working condition will dramatically improve. The sprayed concrete rebound consists mainly of aggregates, and its environmental effect is not significant. New sprayed concrete technology contributes greatly to environmental conservation and contributes to the safety of the entire working community. Advanced equipment allows underground workers to operate from safe distances to the work face and can mitigate the injuries that could arise or health issues as a result.

Author (s) Details

Mihaela Toderaş
University of Petrosani, Mining Engineering, Surveying and Constructions Department, 332006 Petrosani, Romania.

Ciprian Danciu
University of Petrosani, Mining Engineering, Surveying and Constructions Department, 332006 Petrosani, Romania.

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Occupational Health and Safety of Workers in Certain Work Environment in Enugu, Nigeria under COVID-19 Pandemic

Objectives: In the face of the COVID 19 pandemic, to classify health issues associated with such working conditions in Enugu. Research Design: Descriptive design of the cross-sectional sample was used to observe the occurrences in the study area for employees. Place and Period of the Study: The study was conducted between May 2020 and August 2020 in the Nigerian metropolis of Enugu. Methodology: For data collection, questionnaires, personal interviews and personal observations have been introduced. In the analysis of results, descriptive statistics are used. Result: The current survey reveals that while some employers have put in place some steps to avert corona virus touch, many employees in various industries have not taken full advantage of the provisions.

Author(s) Details

Emodi, Edmund Emeka
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

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Application of Ilities for Ontology-based Systems Engineering

The application of ilities for the ontology-based systems engineering is investigated. Ontologies may
be used to improve the systems engineering body of knowledge. The benefits of using ontologies are
that they enable the knowledge management in terms of fundamental concepts and relationships.
Among representatives in systems engineering knowledge management, the concept of ilities becam
most critical since ilities capture one of the cores of what systems engineering is all about. This work
develops the details of how ilities play the important function in the ontology of systems engineering
and show this with examples. Prior work on ilities has emphasized or restricted their application to
system level, non-functional properties. The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with
benefit, and in some cases out of necessity, to lower levels of systems as well. The veracity of this
premise is established by providing examples that demonstrate how some ilities are passed and used
as a non-functional property of electrical and structural subsystems in aircraft. It is further
demonstrated that flowing ilities down to the subsystem or lower levels is not only a useful practice for
systems engineers, it can also be an essential step to ensure that customer needs are actually met by
the system under design or service. Systems engineers often lack the detailed knowledge of the
subsystems or components required to translate ilities into functional requirements. Thus, the system
ilities are passed down and translated from non-functional to functional requirements by subject
matter experts. We first discuss the definition, characteristics and scope of ilities within the context of
ontology. Then, we formulate the application of ilities at a subsystem level. Next, we show aircraft
engineering examples for ilities applications. The application process is formalized with diagrams, and
ilities’ relation to ontological system architecture engineering is discussed. The work concludes with a
summary and suggestions for future work.

Author(s) Details

James Y. Lee
Boeing Commercial Airplanes Division, The Boeing Company, Seal Beach, CA 90740, USA.

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