A Proposal for a Teacher Training Curriculum on School Violence and Violence in Schools

In the first part of this study, the question of school violence is examined, whether it is violence that occurs at school as a result of external pressures (cultural, social, and familiar) or violence that occurs within the school’s organisational structures (institutional violence), and is then reflected in all those involved in the school. When it comes to explaining violence, it can be explained by individual, psychological, and behavioural characteristics, as well as familiar and social elements, and the interaction of each of these aspects. Nonetheless, because school violence is unlikely to go away anytime soon, it is critical that teachers-in-training be prepared in advance to deal with various levels of violence. To this end, a specific subject titled Violence in School: Educating to Intervene, Intervening to Prevent was created for teachers-in-training of Infant and Primary School. In the second half of the article, three instructors from the University of Aveiro’s Educational Department (Portugal) describe how, as part of the European Project NOVAS RES, they developed a curriculum for reducing school violence. We hope that our curriculum will inspire other institutions to provide future teachers-in-training with the resources they will need to deal with violence.

Author (S) Details

Ana Pedro
Departamentode Educação, Universidadede Aveiro, Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/MPLLE-V9/article/view/3602


Study and Monitoring the Prevalence of Asthma among School Children in Gaborone, Botswana

Background: Asthma prevalence is high (> 10%) in developed countries, and while data for most of Africa is still lacking, rates in developing countries are rising as they become more westernized. Asthma is the world’s 14th most important chronic disease in terms of prevalence, extent, and duration of disability, affecting 334 million people of all ages. The prevalence in Africa has been reported to range from 18% in Kenya to 20% in South Africa. In Gaborone, Botswana, we investigated the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The ISAAC method was used. A proportionate size random sample of two age groups of children (13-14 year olds and 6-7 year olds) was systematically enrolled in ten schools. The schools were chosen using a table of random numbers. A sample size of 924 people (462 from each group) was sufficient to achieve a precision of 3% around our estimated prevalence of asthma of 10% with 95% confidence, assuming a 20% non-response rate. The International Study of Childhood Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC) A questionnaire was used to collect data. Asthma was defined by the ISAAC criteria as wheezing in the previous 12 months. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and then analyzed with SPSS version 23. Results: Asthma (wheezing in the previous 12 months) was present in 16.5 percent (194/1175) of the participants. Asthma (wheezing in the previous 12 months) was found in 15.9 percent of 6-7 year olds and 16.8 percent of 13-14 year olds. The prevalence of school type was 22.3 percent in private schools and 14.5 percent in public schools. Asthma severity was associated with older children, 13-14 years old. When compared to the younger children 6-7 years, the older children reported more limited speech due to wheezing (OR=2.0, 95 percent CI =1.034, 3.9, pvalue=0.043), ever had asthma (OR=1.5, 95 percent CI=1.031, 2.3, p-value=0.034), and wheezing during exercise (OR=3.4, 95 percent CI=2.5, 4.9, p-value=0.001). Students in private schools had more wheezing symptoms. They were more likely to have ever wheezed (OR=2.2, 95 percent CI=1.7,2.9, p-value 0.0001), wheezed in the previous twelve months (have asthma) (OR=1.7, 95 percent CI=1.2,2.4, p-value = 0.001), ever had asthma (OR=2.4, 95 percent CI=1.7,3.5, p-value 0.0001), and wheezed during exercise (OR=1.8, 95 percent CI=1.4,

Conclusion: Asthma is very common among Gaborone, Botswana, schoolchildren, with older children experiencing more severe asthma symptoms. Private schools had a higher prevalence of asthma than public schools. More research is needed in Botswana to investigate the prevalence of asthma in rural and urban areas.

Author(s) Details

Andrew Kiboneka
Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

Michael Levin
Allergy Division, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross Memorial Children’s Hospital, South Africa.

Thembisile Mo salakatane
Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

Ishmael Makone
Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Health, Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana.

Eric Wobudeya
Directorate of Paediatrics & Child Health, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

Boikanyo Makubate
Department of Mathematics & Computational Sciences, Botswana International University of Science & Technology Palapye, Botswana.

Russell Hopp
Division of Allergy/Immunology, Creighton University Medical Centre, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Loeto Mazhani
Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

Shiang-Ju Kung
Division of Allergy & Immunology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/CDHR-V6/article/view/1668

An Advanced Study of Health Status among School Going Adolescents in South India

Introduction: The duration of adolescence is important for human growth and maturation. In India, teenagers are 21.4 percent of the population (10-19 years), which accounts for one fifth of the total population. The health and nutritional status of children in the country is a significant index of national investment in developing their future workforce. In order to maintain good adult health, achieving optimal growth during teenage age is very necessary. Many children’s health issues may be identified through the availability of school health services. Via daily school surveys, we can treat and avoid many severe problems in children. The current research was conducted in South India to determine the health status and morbidity trend of school-going adolescents in urban areas.

Materials and Methods: The current research was performed in 2010 in 3 urban schools in the community medicine department’s field practice district. A team of physicians, social workers and school teachers evaluated all children in these schools in the age range of 10 to 19 years of age.

Results: There were 210 adolescents participating in the present research. Of these, 72(34.29%) were girls and 138 (65.71%) were boys. 53.33 percent of the adolescents were considered to be normal and 46.67 percent were malnourished, according to the weight for age criterion. It was found by adding height to age requirements that 32.86 percent of teenagers were stunted with boys suffering more than 66.67 percent compared to 33.3 percent of girls. Of all health issues, the dental caries were the most common (41.90 percent).

Conclusion: The study found that teenagers had poor health and nutritional status. In developing countries, including India, nutrition is a prevalent public health issue worldwide. For adequate growth and development of the child, proper nutrition is required. A weekly and periodic health check-up with organized adolescent nutrition efforts, along with oriented health education, would improve the health and nutritional status of these schools in the future for adolescents.

Author(s) Details

Dr.  Pravin N. Yerpude
Department of Community Medicine, Chhindwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Chhindwara(M.P.), India.

Dr. Keerti S. Jogdand
Department of Community Medicine, Chhindwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Chhindwara(M.P.), India.

Mohini Jogdand
Department of Community Medicine, SRTR Medical College & Hospital, Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/CDHR-V5/issue/view/7

Assessing the Factors Influencing Teachers’ Innovative Behaviour: A Systematic Review

Innovation is seen as a key to retaining a competitive advantage not just for the individual but also for the company in today’s increasingly challenging times. The aggressive rivalry of today demands the willingness and capacity to continually evolve to guarantee that we have the advantage and are at the forefront of success. The rapid changes in the 21st century education system need all teachers to take creative steps. Innovative behaviour is necessary in order to ensure that the education system remains responsive to current trends and innovations. It lacks a thorough identification of its variables, however, which can influence the creative behaviour of a instructor, especially in recent decades. As a research tool, this thesis employed a Systematic Literature Review (SLR). The SLR consists of a research protocol defining the subject to be analysed and the procedure customised to carry out the review. It is the key technique for defining the appropriate literature review and how data is obtained. From primary studies. The phases of the SLR approach are preparing, executing, and reporting the study. The research found that the most dominant factors in shaping the creative actions of teachers in the school sector are leadership and self-efficacy. Detailed empirical studies need to be conducted to see if the factors of leadership and self-efficacy directly or indirectly affect the creative actions of teachers as future mediators and moderators. By filtering papers in foreign languages, using a more comprehensive database and exploring other aspects through in-depth interviews, the analysis can be enhanced. It is recommended that the factors defined be used in multiple settings and focus on non-dominant factors as well. It is hoped that this study will give researchers some insight to further develop this knowledge, especially in the context of Malaysia. Innovative behaviour is a vital place for teachers to develop in today’s fast-paced world of education and educational change.

Author(s) Details

Mohammed Afandi Zainal
Centre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore
Centre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Physical Bullying in Guyanese Schools: Prevalence and Intervention Strategies – Head Teachers’ and Teachers’ Perspectives

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how head teachers and teachers viewed the prevalence of physical bullying in their schools. Additionally, the study sought to investigate head teachers and teachers’ perspectives on the effectiveness of adult supervision, speaking with the bully and the victim, and communicating with the parents of the bully and victim in decreasing physical bullying in four government schools within the Central Corentyne area of Guyana. The study comprised sixteen teachers from both primary and secondary schools. The data indicated that participants felt that physical bullying was prevalent in the four schools regardless of the extent of prevalence. The data also indicated that participants were of the view that all three strategies had a positive effective in combating physical bullying in the four schools. The most effective strategies were adult supervision and speaking with the bully and the victim. The least effective strategy was communicating with the parents of the bully and victim about the bullying incidents. The findings of this research are very significant to Guyana. It is significant to Guyana because it provides landmark data on physical bullying prevalence and intervention strategies that have been used by Guyanese teachers and head teachers to combat physical bullying. This information can be used by educators to make informed decisions relating to bullying prevention

Author(s)  Details

 Ms. Maureen Ann Bynoe
University of Guyana, Tain, Corentyne, Berbice, Guyana

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Machine Deep Learning in E-learning: Study of Influence on the Performance of Primary School Students

An e-Learning service is a valuable tool that can help school directors, teachers, and students to do various teaching and learning activities online. Such a service can improve the quality of teaching at schools. To examine the practical effect of this service, we surveyed the usage of the e-Learning system in teaching and learning activities in a chosen primary school in Saudi Arabia. The targeted group was students in grades five and six who undertook Math, Science, and English courses in the second semester of the session 2018-2019. In this paper, we develop a questionnaire to measure the satisfaction levels of the targeted students regarding the services provided by the Black Board learning management system (LMS). The main finding of this study is that there is still a gap between the e-Learning theoretical principles and the practice. Students’ recommendations helped us to overcome the difficulties encountered to improve the educational system. One of the main recommendations that we got from our students is to have lecture pictures and posters uploaded on the system before lecture time so that they can review it before class time.

Author (s) Details
Hatem Ahmed Soliman
Department of Curriculum and Methodology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Zeinab Mohamed Hassan Khalifa
Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Mahmoud Mostafa Attia Saleh
Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

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Political, Economical, Social, Cultural and Technological Obstacles in the Schools

Organizational structure forms the interaction and responsibilities among duties, individuals and resources in an organization. Traditional organizational structures are generally categorized as functional, separated, strategic work unit, matrix and product set structure. Successful institutions give importance to informal organizational factors along with formal organizational factors. Informal organizational factors are mostly people oriented topics. Organizational managers are expected to be leaders and coordinate the staff in accordance with the organizational purposes in order to use the material and human resources of the organization rationally. Managers play a fundamental role in school quality and they have an impact on school and classroom management with the management approaches they perform. Educational organizations are social open systems and they make great effort to maintain their existance and to acheve their goals. Despite their effort, some may be defined as “effective” and some may be called “less effective”. Many research have demonstrated that school efficacy is not related with financial status but with organizational culture and climate. This section aimed to determine obstacles in educational organizations through PEST (Political, Economical, Social and Technological aspects) analysis and to make advisory inferences for future research. This study is important to reveal the obstacles in the schools and educational organizations. By doing this, the quality of the school will increase, students’ success will be enhanced and educators will experience more job satisfaction in their professions. The political obstacles in schools are related to syndicate, diplomacy, hierarchy, upper management and legislation and the economical obstacles stem from school budget, personal rights and limited school resources. The social obstacles are school environment, principal, teacher, student and the issues related to school culture. The technological obstacles consists of issues related to teaching material and virtual system. The political, social, cultural, economical and technological obstacles in schools should be eliminated in order to get the expected efficiency in schools. It can be concluded that political, social, cultural, economic and technologic obstacles should be reduced in order to obtained desired productivity in schools.

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