A Proposal for a Teacher Training Curriculum on School Violence and Violence in Schools

In the first part of this study, the question of school violence is examined, whether it is violence that occurs at school as a result of external pressures (cultural, social, and familiar) or violence that occurs within the school’s organisational structures (institutional violence), and is then reflected in all those involved in the school. When it comes to explaining violence, it can be explained by individual, psychological, and behavioural characteristics, as well as familiar and social elements, and the interaction of each of these aspects. Nonetheless, because school violence is unlikely to go away anytime soon, it is critical that teachers-in-training be prepared in advance to deal with various levels of violence. To this end, a specific subject titled Violence in School: Educating to Intervene, Intervening to Prevent was created for teachers-in-training of Infant and Primary School. In the second half of the article, three instructors from the University of Aveiro’s Educational Department (Portugal) describe how, as part of the European Project NOVAS RES, they developed a curriculum for reducing school violence. We hope that our curriculum will inspire other institutions to provide future teachers-in-training with the resources they will need to deal with violence.

Author (S) Details

Ana Pedro
Departamentode Educação, Universidadede Aveiro, Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.

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Domestic Violence in Senegal: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

Introduction: The under-denunciation remains shrill among victims linked to socio-cultural constraints in the face of the predominance of domestic abuse. A descriptive analysis of the epidemiological and clinical dimensions of domestic violence and the experiences of victims in Senegal is the purpose of this research.

Methodology: A mixed procedure was done. The information was compiled from the 2006 to 2015 court reports of female victims of physical and/or sexual assault. It also included female victims of physical and/or sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands who had a court record in one of the high courts of Senegal during this time. For the analysis, all records that met the inclusion criteria were chosen and the information was analyzed using Epi Info 3.3.2. There was a qualitative empirical analysis conducted. The victims were the sample population. In order to gather victims’ experiences of violence, individual interview guides have been made. Content analysis aided by thematic analysis was performed with the program Iramuteq.

Results: The average age of the victims was 30.6 ± 10.1 years, according to the court reports of 148 female victims of domestic abuse. Over 3⁄4 (76.4%) of the victims were housekeepers, of whom 82.4% were uneducated. The average age of the offenders was 40.4 ± 11.4 years and, in 47.3% of cases, they were self-employed in the informal sector. Moreover, more than 3⁄4 (78.4 percent) of the suspects were uneducated. Eleven women were raped while pregnant (8 percent of the victims). Physical violence was prevalent (95.3%), whereas sexual assault-related violence accounted for 4.7% of instances. Of the 7 cases of sexual violence reported, 3 were cases of unwanted sexual intercourse and all cases of physical violence were cases of battery and assault. In 81.8 percent of cases, the abuse occurred at the perpetrators’ house. Victims obtained treatment and care within 24 hours or less in 84.7 percent of the cases. 73 percent of the victims showed clinical lesions. Contusions, hematomas and penetrating wounds were the most common, comprising 23.1%, 19.4% and 13.9% of cases, respectively. The key aggressor, the husband, is at the center of all forms of abuse. He beats his wife, for instance (physical violence), he abuses his wife (verbal abuse), or he refuses to have sex with his partner. Sometimes, women hide the abuse experienced by those around them for fear of divorce and deny any denunciation.

CONCLUSION: Despite the low number of cases reported in the justice system over the past ten years, there has been a lot more violence without the victims being condemned. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase community understanding and crack socio-cultural barriers that obstruct the recognition of the rights of women in the couple.

Author(s) Details

Mamadou Makhtar Mbacké Leye
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, Senegal.

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Postpartum Sexual Abstinence and High Risk Sexual Behaviour Trends in African Settings

Aims: To determine the prevalence of high risk sexual behavior and its relationship to the duration of coital sexual abstinence in husbands of postpartum women.

Study Design:  Cross sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ikenne Local Government Area, in Ogun State, South Western Nigeria between, December 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: Data were obtained with the aid of semi-structured interviewee administered questionnaire from 771 husbands of postpartum women using the multi-stage sampling technique.

Results: The prevalence of High risk sex in the population was 10.6%. The duration of coital sexual abstinence was the most important risk factor (P<.001), while previous extramarital sexual relationship (P<.001, OR=41.70, 95%CI=18.07-96.07) and husband’s knowledge of his own HIV status (P=.03, OR=1.71) were also significant determinants of this occurrence. Consistent condom use during unsafe sex was 6.1%, while STIs occurred in 3.7% of the participants. Significantly longer durations of coital abstinence (8.30 ± 6.24 months) were observed in men who were rural dwellers than in urban dwelling husbands (7.16 ± 6.01 months), P=.01. Violent behavior against the postpartum wife during the abstinence period was reported by 1.2% of the participants.

Conclusion: High risk male sexual behavior was a consequence of prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence and a predisposition to STIs among husbands of postpartum women.

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