Latest Research on Orthoptera: Dec – 2019

Venation pattern of Orthoptera

The revision of many taxa antecedently attributed to the plesion ‘Protorthoptera’ yielded data concerning the venation pattern of Orthoptera and therefore the sister-group relationships of Orthoptera. a brand new wing venation pattern is planned, i.e., (1) a basal composite stem M CuA, distally separated into M and CuA; (2) distal free CuA united with the anterior branch of CuPa (CuPa ‘alpha’). we have a tendency to think about the cluster} Orthoptera as AN apomorphy-based group (sensu Brochu & Sumrall), on the premise of this complicated structure and, additionally by the presence of 2 branches of MA, MA1 and MA2 (but reversed in some recent taxa, having a MA simple). within the stem cluster of Orthoptera, the free a part of CuA is united with CuPa, i.e., CuPa isn’t ramified into CuPa ‘alpha’ and CuPa ‘beta’. Also, MA is easy. [1]

Sound signalling in orthoptera

The sounds made by insect insects square measure terribly numerous. they’re wide studied for the insight they furnish into acoustic behaviour and therefore the biophysical aspects of sound production and hearing, yet because the transduction of sound to neural signals within the ear and therefore the sequent process of knowledge within the central systema nervosum. Some orthopterans decision largely in the dead of night (e.g. most bushcrickets), others decision largely throughout the day (e.g. most grasshoppers), whereas others decision each day and night (e.g. most crickets). The sounds made by insect insects cowl a large vary of sonic frequencies and extend well into the unhearable vary. the dimensions of most species is specified the potency of sound radiation is bigger at higher frequencies. The structure of the songs of insect insects is additionally terribly numerous. [2]

Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov.

After the revision of many fossils and observations of recent taxa, we tend to propose a brand new interpretation of the wing venation pattern for the ‘orthopteroid lineage’. The Orthoptera and a number of other taxa antecedently appointed to the paraphyletic cluster ‘Protorthoptera’ square measure enclosed in an exceedingly common biological group, Archaeorthoptera taxonomic group November. The Orthoptera and a few nearest relative teams square measure enclosed within the Panorthoptera sensu November. These assignments square measure supported new autapomorphies supported venation patterns. A cladistic organic process analysis of the Orthoptera is performed for the primary time on the fossil record of this cluster, supported seventy four characters (131 informative states). 3 taxa appointed to the Archaeorthoptera NEC Panorthoptera compose the outgroup. The circle consists of 3 Panorthoptera NEC Orthoptera and sixty three Orthoptera, chiefly from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Following this primary evolution, we tend to propose many nomenclatural changes; the Ensifera square measure redefined and also the relationships between Caelifera and Ensifera sensu November., and people between the key clades of recent Ensifera sensu November., square measure processed. [3]

Dosage compensation of the sex-linked enzyme phosphoglucomutase in the orthoptera

Sex-linkage of phosphoglucomutase (PGM) is widespread within the Orthoptera. for every of 3 species studied (representing the 2 suborders), the particular activity of PGM in males (the heterogametic sex) is sort of just like that in females, providing evidence that the distinction in cistron dose of a organic phenomenon locus in males and females is salaried within the Orthoptera. The Orthoptera is merely the third cluster that compensation has been incontestable . dose compensation has been investigated in 3 orders of insects: it’s gift in Orthoptera and order Diptera however absent in Lepidoptera. [4]

Meroncidius intermedius (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Incidence and Analysis of Fruits Attacked in Banana Crops in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

The objective of this study was to guage the influence of abiotic factors on the incidence of the injury caused by Meroncidius intermedius on Prata cv. Pacovan banana fruits and whether or not such injury interferes within the development and exploitation of the fruits. The experiment was conducted in 2 stages. the primary one was applied at Fazenda Bonadiman, municipality of Iconha E, Brazil, in a section of 02 hectares cultivated with Pacovan banana, Prata selection, during a spacing three|of three} m x 3 m, between the months of June 2016 and should 2017, wherever the incidence of harm was monitored within the monthly harvested fruits. The second stage was applied at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo – Santa missioner field, in might of 2018, the measurements of the fruits and also the sensory analysis and intention to shop for broken fruits being applied. As a result, it absolutely was obtained that the close temperature influenced the incidence of pests within the banana crop, being favoured by delicate temperatures, whereas higher temperatures disadvantage the insect inflicting a lower incidence. [5]

Reference

[1] Béthoux, O. and Nel, A., 2001. Venation pattern of Orthoptera. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 10(2), (Web Link)

[2] Robinson, D.J. and Hall, M.J., 2002. Sound signalling in Orthoptera. (Web Link)

[3] Béthoux, O. and Nel, A., 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa, 96(1), (Web Link)

[4] Dosage compensation of the sex-linked enzyme phosphoglucomutase in the orthoptera
Darcy R Hebbert
Heredity volume 53, (Web Link)

[5] Bonadiman, P. A., Junior, J. L. F., Madalon, F. Z., Carvalho, J. R., Garcia, A. D. B., Pratissoli, D. and Prezotti, L. (2018) “Meroncidius intermedius (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Incidence and Analysis of Fruits Attacked in Banana Crops in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 28(3),  (Web Link)